Detail View: World War I Collection: Maintaining morals and morale

Collection Name: 
World War I Pamphlets Collection
Title: 
Maintaining morals and morale
Subtitle: 
work in camps and elsewhere to lighten the burdens on our soldiers
Alternative Title: 
Work in camps and elsewhere to lighten the burdens on our soldiers
Name Part: 
United States. Committee on Public Information. Division of Four Minute Men
Type of Resource: 
text
Place Term: 
Washington
Publisher: 
Government Printing Office
Date Issued: 
1917
Issuance: 
monographic
Form: 
electronic
Internet Media Type: 
application/pdf
Extent: 
1235876864
Extent: 
8 p. 28 cm
Digital Origin: 
reformatted digital
Note: 
Committee on Public Information. Division of Four Minute Men
Subject Topic: 
World War, 1914-1918 -- United States
Subject Authority: 
lcsh
Subject Geographic Code: 
n-us---
Subject Geographic Code Authority: 
marcgac
Subject Topic: 
Soldiers -- Recreation -- United States
Subject Authority: 
lcsh
Subject Geographic Code: 
n-us---
Subject Geographic Code Authority: 
marcgac
Subject Topic: 
Recreation agencies -- United States
Subject Authority: 
lcsh
Subject Geographic Code: 
n-us---
Subject Geographic Code Authority: 
marcgac
Classification: 
D639.E8 M34 1917
Related Item: 
Bulletin no. 19
Related Item: 
Bulletin (United States. Committee on Public Information. Division of Four Minute Men) no. 19
Identifier: 
i7176446x
Physical Location: 
University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Archives Dept.
Location URL: 
Access Condition: 
All rights reserved
Text: 
COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION DIVISION OF FOUR MINUTE MEN November 12,1917. Bulletin No. 19. MINUTE MEN 10 JACKSON PLACE WASHINGTON, D. C. "MAINTAINING MORALS AND MORALE." Work in camps and elsewhere to lighten the burdens of our soldiers. Bulletin No. 19.—For use from November 12 until November 25,1917. TO ALL FOUR MINUTE MEN: Letters reaching relatives from the cantonments indicate generally a splendid morale. But here and there a disgruntled letter writer may draw a distorted picture; and many labor under the error that war is to "be the final occupation of the majority of our soldiers. They do not realize that fourteen out of fifteen, according to statistics, will come back, and that thus the work that is being done for them in the way of building morale is not merely for war efficiency, but for peace efficiency as well. To emphasize this other side of camp life, to relieve a little of the anguish of relatives, and to create a still heartier response for all that is being done in the way of recreation for soldiers is the object of our next speaking campaign. Your topic: Any Phase of the Work of the Commission on Training Camp Activities. The Y. M. C. A., having been longest organized, and operating, of course, on a much larger scale than any other body, has been the unquestioned leader in camp activities. But we ask all Four Minute Men as a matter of fairness, in speaking about the Y. M. C. A. to mention that the Knights of Columbus and the Young Men's Hebrew Association are doing similar work, that all three are co-operating, and that these are not sectarian movements. We are fostering a movement for social good; we are helping ALL who are soldiers. The Y. M. C. A. and the Playgrounds and Recreation Association of America are both raising funds with which to carry on their invaluable war work. We must avoid becoming solicitors for contributions. A reference only to the fact that these funds are being raised is sufficient. If the good work of the various organizations is explained, their solicitors will attend to the matter of subscriptions . We leave it to each speaker to talk on the general topic or on the phase which interests him the most. Cordially, yours, william Mccormick blair, Director. P. S.—Remember the Four Minute; no more. 21936°—17 2 "AND THE PACK SEEMS LIGHTER." Burdens of War Weigh Less When Morale is at Its Best—What the Government is Doing—How You Can Help. Letters from Home are Helping the Morale. Commission on Training Camp Activities Enlist the Help of Many Organizations—Appeal of the Y. M. C. A. and of the Playground and Recreation Association of America— Helping the Men to Come Back After the War Clean, Strong, Ready for the Work of Peace. Rome's military machine could not crush Carthage. But an ally finally helped her destroy Hannibal's army. That ally was profligacy, causing disease. Thus the greatest of ancient commercial empires perished. No such foul ally will be permitted to help the Kaiser against American troops. Profiting by earlier war lessons, America is entering at a time when the need of morale and morals among fighting men-morale and morals in all that these words signify—is now fully recognized-Bringing the Home Nearer, We are bringing the home nearer, very much nearer, to the men in the training camp and in the fighting trench. Never before in history has an army gone into war guarded against temptation, cheered and helped with home comforts and home type of recreation as America's men in khaki. Needs Taught by the War, The need for this is great indeed. Statistics of the first year of the war are said to show that in one of the highest grade colonial armies which suffered most HOW YOU CAN HELP. Write letters to all the soldiers you know; write often; give all the home news. Send songs and books, phonograph records and piano-player rolls. Distribute little gifts, like housewives and useful presents; or bring out a box of candy or a cake. Give a mite of your money to the organizations that are so superbly upholding morale. under fire the dead and wounded numbered fewer than 8 per cent, while disability from avoidable disease rose to 20 per cent. Then, too, those men in the earlier days were woefully short of comfort and cheer. There was no time in the rush of preparation to consider minor matters of physical well-being which have since been shown to be of great importance for victory. As for recreation amusements and relief from mental strain, all that had to be built up when the nations settled down to a long war. First Thought: Help the Boys. Our own country, a few days after the declaration of war, secured a Commission on Training Camp Activities, appointed by the War Department. This commission covers an even wider field than its name implies. It takes charge, practically, of the soldier's fife, outside of eating, sleeping, and drill. Through affiliated work it looks not only after the men at the training camps here and in France, but will also aid and comfort them when they become prisoners, or when wounded, or when discharged for disability. If you could follow a soldier from the hour that he leaves home to the train, and then to the camp, and then through the daily life, you would begin to realize what it means to maintain morale. And you will be inspired to help wherever you can with your money and your time to cheer the hoys who are risking their all. Three Branches of Work. The work of the commission is divided into three distinct activities: First. Securing and enforcing repressive measures near the camps, to stamp out vice, to preserve orders by regulations, both military and civil; to work with the Provost Marshal, etc., etc. Associations of men and women in all the larger cities had, of course, been active for years, and they have been glad to help. Second. Offsetting the repressive measures by offering entertainments and recreation around camps, and back of the trenches. In this work college fraternities and sororities, business associations, clubs and settlements have been enlisted, all under the Play Ground and Recreation Association of America, (As this association is raising a fund, further note regarding its work is given below.) Third. Providing physical comforts recreation and social activities within the camps and within affiliated organizations in the trenches under fire. No Time Lost in Starting. We have heard a good deal since this war began of the difficulty of getting new movements organized. The commission foresaw this and therefore followed a simple, highly effective plan of creating new machinery only where necessary and cooperating wherever possible with organizations already in existence. The commission in this and other respects has proven highly efficient. Hundreds of already active organizations, some national and many local, have enlisted in these Government activities, and thus the work was put under way in the shortest order. Helping the Life in Camp. Thus, aside from the Play Grounds Association and all its affiliated bodies, in the work within camp alone, the following new and old organizations are helping: The T. M. C. A.—This is by far the largest body in camp. It performs strictly a social work. It helps men of all creeds equally. (As the war council of the Y. M. C. A. is raising a fund the week of November 12, some detail regarding its work is given below.) The Knights of Columbus.—A fraternal organization in charge of Roman Catholics, is doing the same work in camp as the Y. M. C. A. They have put up, and are putting up, buildings in the shape of club houses, equipped with desk rooms, benches, phonographs, and player pianos, moving picture apparatus, athletic equipment, and other facilities for entertainment. Sixty-five halls are already in operation. They are open to all men of all denominations, exactly like the Y. M. C. A.; in fact the Y. M. C. A. and the Knights of Columbus are cooperating in all their camp work. The Young Men's Hebrew As8ocIation has just made arrangements for headquarters in the Y. M. C. A. buildings. There is not a sufficient number of Hebrews in any one brigade to justify the building of a hall, so floor space is being reserved in the Y. M. C. A. building, with desks, bulletin boards, and so on. The American Library Association has raised a fund of over $1,000,000, and is now erecting special library buildings in the National Army camps and the National Guard camps, other halls being used for books at the present. Recreative athletic work is in the hands of 32 trained organizers and coaches. They are civilian aids on the staff of each commanding officer and their salary is paid by the Government. The sport directors will be assisted by boxing instructors, of whom 15 have already been appointed. This matter of boxing has been given special attention, because it helps men in bayonet fighting. So a committee of best-known boxers is working under the committee, and moving pictures that teach boxing have been made. Baseballs, bats, basket balls, soccer balls, boxing gloves, etc., are being supplied to each company by this committee, in part from a Government appropriation. Post exchanges, or soldiers' cooperative stores, are being organized for each regiment. The soldier buys tobacco, handkerchiefs, soap, candy, and other articles not provided by the Government from his post exchange, and the profits are expended in a way decided upon by the votes of the men. Established exchanges are now doing about $5,000 a day per division. Camp music is in charge of an appointee of the division, cooperating with the National Committee on Army and Navy Camp Music. They appoint song leaders, who have already compiled a book under the title "Songs of the Soldier and Sailor," and they encourage music among the men in other ways. Dramatic entertainment is in charge of a committee of the leading theatrical managers, who have booked many of the foremost stars of the country for entertainments which begin this month, November. Admission charges of 15, 20, and 25 cents have been established, and the net proceeds will go to finance nonrevenue producing activities within the camps. A fully equipped modern theater building, seating 3,000 people is being erected in each of the 16 National Army camps; they are so planned that they can be used for various educational activities at any time, winter or summer. Ridpath entertainments.—Entertainments are in charge of the Ridpath Lyceum Bureau, which has provided a first-class program of plays and entertainments in a tent in each camp. Surplus receipts go to the post exchanges. Educational work is in charge of a committee, of which the Chief of the Government Bureau of Education is a member. There are courses in the French language, and the French geography. And the committee is planning courses in any subjects in which there is a demand. Instruction in the English language has been found necessary for soldiers drafted from our foreign population. 3 WORK OF THE Y. M. C. A. When a soldier gets to camp he reports for enrollment, gets assignment to his company, reports to the company commander, and is assigned to his bunk. He arranges his effects and probably hammers up a few shelves and hangers for his clothes. His company is called out to be arranged into squads, there is some preliminary drill, and he is free for the first day. Then he goes over to the nearest Y. M. C. A. building, a few minutes' walk from his sleeping quarters. He goes there not as a Y. M. C. A. follower but as a soldier. For the Y. M. C. A. is his club, and no soldier thinks of it otherwise. Protestants, Roman Catholics, and Jews gather there alike (and we may add that over in Europe the Greek Catholics too, yes, the Mohammedans and the Buddhists, are now as much members of the great Y. M. C. A. club as are others). Description of the Clubhouse. At this Y. M. C. A. clubhouse are long rows of benches and seats filled by young men reading, writing, smoking, chatting. There is paper and ink and pens—necessities for which the soldier must always scratch like a hen for its corn if he is over in the barracks. So, first of all the boy writes a letter home—that is important, extremely important. Over in one corner a phonograph is playing and some of the boys are singing—that, too, is important, extremely important. (Frederick Law Olmstedt, after his own service during the Civil War gave as his conclusion that the two great influences in keeping men well were singing and keeping home ties alive by correspondence. Let us remember this ourselves, recognizing that every line we drop to a soldier in camp or in the trenches is a help in warming the heart—a direct aid in winning the war.) Off on another side of the Y. M. C. A. room are many checkerboards always in use. Checkers is a game that is generally played without gambling, and gambling is one of the great vices in camp, giving wrong ideas of the seriousness of life and causing friction and ill feeling between comrades. Secretaries Are Kept Busy. To the side is a desk, with one or two or three Y. M. C. A. secretaries; and there you can always get postage stamps, another important necessity hard to find elsewhere. At least one man, or, if necessary, four or five men are ready to translate letters written in foreign languages, and they also write and read for the men who can not do this well for themselves. Off in another corner is the Y. M. C. A. library. Some of the books have come from the Y. M. C. A., but many more from the American Library Association and from private donations. The books may be taken out if desired. They are selected to cover every grade of good taste and every scale of intelligence and education. No Restraint, Yet Decency. Everywhere in that Y. M. C. A. building there is freedom and ease, club life, nearly home life; an absence of restraint amid an atmosphere of decency and cleanliness that distinguished everywhere the surroundings of such homes as the Y. M. C. A., the Knights of Columbus, and the Hebrew young men have established. Now, when the boy has written his letters and played his game of checkers and read his books he goes back to his company for evening mess. And after mess he is again at the Y. M. C. A., for there are lectures and entertainments. Some evenings there are social meetings; other nights there is a moving-picture show or a boxing bout. There is fun, healthy fun. Then, too, there are concerts or good vaudeville, and sometimes well-known musicians and prominent actors donate their time. "Hot Stuff" Theatres Lose. To show what this healthy amusement accomplishes we could point to one camp near which two motion-picture theaters were built for the direct purpose of luring the soldiers to see some '″'hot stuff." The word was passed around among the boys that the "real thing" was soon to be seen. Well, the Y. M. C. A. within the camp immediately made an extra effort at motion-picture shows. They put on the best; they gave everything free. The two movies with the "hot stuff" never opened their doors. Right now the Y. M. C. A is spending $1,000 every week for the best in picture shows. On Sunday morning every Y. M. C. A. has its services, and every denomination can get an assignment for a period for its services. The Catholics have held as many as three masses in one morning in the Y. M. C. A. building. The Hebrews have had numerous services, and all denominations of Protestant ministers take their turn in preaching. In the evening the religious services, always general, are so strongly nondenominational, that a Mohammedan will find himself as much at home as a Protestant or Greek Catholic. No Proselyting Is Permitted. No denomination is allowed to proselyte. It is understood within the Y. M. C. A. that a man's religion is his own, that no effort shall be made to draw him from one religion to the other. Right living is the aim of THE Religion. There are at present 500 Y. M. C. A. buildings for war purposes in this country, and there will be 200 Y. M. C. A. buildings in France by January 31; 2,000 secretaries are active in this country and 3,000 overseas. France wants 500, Russia 200, and Italy 200 this year. The Y. M. C. A. is now entering upon a campaign of savings among soldiers. For pay day has always been the day of danger, so the men are encouraged to take the currency as soon as received from the paymaster direct to the Y. M. C. A. representative who sends money orders home. This work is being energetically pushed and its importance can hardly be overestimated. In the European Trenches. The work for our boys can not stop in the camps. It must go on to the trenches and for many it must go on to the prison camps in Germany. So, if you want ″ to know what the Y. M. C. A. is going to do for our boys abroad, ask what it is doing now. The first of the American boys are now in the frontline trenches. With them are Y. M. C. A. secretaries. They have been over there with the other soldiers the last few years. For the dugout of the Y. M. C. A. is as much a feature of trench life as the listening post and the underground kitchen. Like the Y. M. C. A. building in our camps, this dugout is the clubhouse. The percentage of killed and wounded among the front-line Y. M. C. A. secretaries is said to be the same as that of the fighting men. We are told, too, that on the night before an attack, when the men are told they are going over the top, these Y. M. C. A. dugouts are crowded with men, all writing home once more. When a regiment is moved through danger zones, the Y. M. C. A. goes along, even ahead of the men. The comforts are there by the time the soldiers end their march. For what the Red Cross does for a soldier after he has been wounded, the Red Triangle of the Y. M. C. A. is doing for him while he is well. In the Prison Camps. Untold suffering has been saved in prison camps by the Y. M. C. A. The American branch of this organization took charge of many prisoners' camps, both in the central empire and among the allies, while we were still neutral. So when war was declared Germany-permitted the Y. M. C. A. to continue its activities in Germany in order that the help would not be withdrawn from German prisoners in France and Russia. A member of the Y. M. C. A., therefore, is allowed to go to and from 5 Germany, and while most of the secretaries in Germany have been sent away, a few Americans at the head are still permitted in Berlin. Thus the Y. M. C. A. is occupying a humanitarian position absolutely unique in all the world's history. It will be able when Americans are taken prisoners to look after every one of our boys, to clothe them and feed them, and let relatives know how the boys are getting along. How some prisoners are being fed and treated, rumor tells us. That thousands and thousands have disappeared we know, while mother, father, brother, and sister have for years heard not a word. Thanks to the Y. M. C. A., these horrifying phases of physical and mental anguish will be saved to Americans. Raising a $35,000,000 Fund. The Y. M. C. A. is asking for $35,000,000 to serve 34,000,000 men for nine months. Ten dollars goes for the American soldier, and a little over 50 cents applies for the soldiers of our allies. This money is in charge of the War Work Council of the Y. M. C. A., and all funds received are entirely separate from regular Y. M. C. A. work. Of the $35,000,000, about $11,000,000 is to be spent with the United States enlisted men in this country, and $12,000,000 for the overseas, and $1,000,000 for preservation of war camps. The balance, $7,000,000, is to go for work in Russian, French, and Italian armies, and about $4,000,000 for expansion. Payment for pledges may be made January 1 or, if desired, by monthly contributions through the year. WORK IN TOWNS NEAR CAMPS. What the Playground and Recreation Association of America Is Doing. This association has charge of all the work near the camps except repressive measures, which are handled by another branch of the division. One hundred and three communities have been already organized; $500,000 has been already invested. We must realize that men are constantly seeking amusement outside their regular surroundings. So the life near the camp is of vital importance. The association in charge has just closed a week, raising a $4,000,000 war camp community recreation fund, and those interested may still donate. Here are the purposes for which the fund will be used: A. Creating and maintaining a strong committee in each of the war-camp communities, with many auxiliaries, to protect the soldier from exploitation and to make him feel at home in the community. B. Erecting and maintaining club and recreational buildings, lodging houses, comfort stations, swimming pools, etc. C. Employing one or more trained community organizers in each community adjacent to the camp. D. Securing accommodations for visiting relatives, thus making their comfort and safety possible. Accommodations Committee. 1. Providing adequate public drinking fountains and comfort stations. 2. Adequate sleeping and restaurant accommodations for the soldiers and relatives visiting the city. 3. Down-town rest rooms (soldiers' clubs). Church Cooperation Committee. 1. Organized efforts to get the soldiers to attend church services and make them feel that some church is their church while in the vicinity. 2. Special open-air service Sunday evening. 3. Week night socials and receptions by Sunday Schools and clubs. 4. Furnishing speakers for religious exercises at camps. 5. Having soldiers entertained in homes of the church members. 6. Using down-town church basements for rest rooms. Commercial Relations Committee. 1. Provides for a fair deal on all transactions between men and officers of camp and the citizens and tradesmen of the city. Education Committee. 1. Furnishing teachers of French, German, etc., to the Y. M. C. A. and other agencies for camp classes. 2. Arranges debates and educational work of all sorts. Fraternal Organizations and Club Committee. 1. Socials and smokers, for brothers and other groups of soldiers, given by Masons, Elks, Knights of Columbus, Rotarians, etc. Girls' and Women's Committee. 1. Organizing the girls of the city into patriotic clubs to keep them occupied in patriotic work. 2. Receptions and socials by girls' patriotic clubs. 3. Placing hotels in or near camps for women visitors (Y. W. 0. A.). 4. Caring for women relatives visiting at camp or hospitals. PRESIDENT WILSON'S EXECUTIVE ORDER GIVING THE Y. M. C. A. OFFICIAL RECOGNITION. The Young Men's Christian Association has, in the present emergency, as under similar circumstances in the past, tendered its services for the benefit of enlisted men in both arms of the service. This organization is prepared by experience, approved methods, and assured resources to serve especially the troops in camp and field. It seems best for the interest of the service that it shall continue as a voluntary civilian organization; however, the results obtained are so beneficial and bear such a direct relation to efficiency, inasmuch as the association provision contributes to the happiness, i content, and morale of the personnel, that in order to unify the civilian betterment activities in the Army and to further the work of the organization that has demonstrated its ability to render a service desired by both officers and men, official recognition is hereby given the Young Men's Christian Association as a valuable adjunct and asset to the service. Officers are enjoined to render the fullest practicable assistance and cooperation in the maintenance and extension of the association, both at permanent posts and stations and in camp and field. To this end attention of officers is called to the precedent and policy already established. 5. Meeting women guests at trains, furnishing them lists of boarding houses and hotels, and helping them to spend pleasantly the time while soldiers are on duty. Information Committee. 1. Clearing house for information regarding soldiers. 2. Getting census of soldiers, showing home address, schools attended, church and fraternal affiliations. 3. Lists of hotels and boarding houses for soldiers and relatives. 4. Announcements of community activities for soldiers at the camps. 5. Furnishing handbooks and maps of city, giving locations of leisure time facilities—parks, playgrounds, etc. Music, Dramatics, and Public Celebrations Committee. 1. Band concerts and Sunday entertainments in towns. 2. Arranging dramatics for local camp and professional talent. 3. Musicals and entertainments to be given at the camp by citizens and for entertainment in communities adjacent to the camps. 4. Celebration of Battle of Marne, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and other special days. Physical Recreation Committee. 1. Providing facilities for bathing and swimming. Public Welfare Committee. 1. Cares for ill and despondent soldiers and those under arrest. 2. Watches crime statistics for cause and remedy. Reception and Entertainment Committee. 1. Public receptions to incoming soldiers by local committee. 2. Receptions by various organizations, clubs, and churches. 3. Return entertainments with program furnished by soldiers. 4. Arranging auto rides through the city and country. 5. Get as many men as possible entertained in the homes of the citizens for week-ends and Sunday dinners. POINTS SUGGESTED FOR SPEECHES. (By a member of the association.) For the first time in history our country, in building its Army, has made provision at the very outset to turn the soldiers' leisure hours and the training camp environment into an asset instead of a liability. Let us see to it that when our boys return from this war they will bear no other scars than those received in honorable warfare. Let there be no unwritten casualty list for this American Army. The fund for protecting soldiers is not a sentimental fund. It is a war fund, not merely to make life easier, but to surround the soldier with needs that make for 100 per cent efficiency. Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood said: " I hope that your financial campaign will be a great success, and I am sure that when the people appreciate not only the necessity for but the value of your work, they will respond liberally with contributions to your fund." NAPOLEON SAID: "The morale in war is to the physical as three to one." Realizing that great battles are won by man power, and not by mere numbers of men, she has set high the standard of soldierly conduct, and has laid the foundation for building a great army of men, the nearest perfect physically, the most alert mentally, and the most sound morally that the world has ever known, to the end that the war may be won in the shortest possible time, and that her loss in men shall be limited to those who die honorably. President Wilson said: "The spirit with which our soldiers leave America and their efficiency on the battle fronts of Europe will be vitally affected by the character of the environment surrounding our military training camps." Secretary of War Baker says: '' These boys are going to the trenches overseas, and I want them adequately armed and clothed by their country, and I want them to have invisible armor to take with them, that moral and intellectual armor, that new soldier's state of mind, for their protection overseas. You are the makers of that armor." (Secretary Baker was speaking to the Conference of War-Camp Community Workers.) A soldier can be made or unmade by the character of the training-camp environment. To determine the character of the environment of the camp communities, and thus to conserve the vigor and the spirit of the young manhood of our country, which is to represent us on the battle fronts of Europe, is the purpose of the War-Camp Community Recreation Fund. The war-camp fund allows $3 per year per man, less than 1 cent a day, to safeguard American soldiers and sailors against the temptations and vices which have been the ruin of many armies. This sum is to be raised and expended during the next 12 months in the cities and towns adjacent to the 90 or more training camps and posts throughout the United States. The object is to provide recreational facilities which are not only desirable, from a humanitarian standpoint, but which are absolutely necessary, if we are to build an army of strong, virile, fighting men. This money will be spent directly for the purpose of creating an environment which will be a vital factor in determining the morale of the new American army. Make American soldiers and sailors feel at home wherever you send them. They'll fight the better for it. Do you have to look death in the face to appreciate the value of human life? Think of those clean, strong youngsters going over the top. Your dollars will give them a better chance to win. Your money will insure them the health, the strength, the morale, that bring the quickest victory and cost the fewest lives. We are resolved, here and now, that the new American Army shall be the finest flower of a century of democracy. GENERAL PERSHING SAYS: "The greatest service America can immediately render France is to extend association work to the entire French Army." i 7 A Few Typical Illustrative Speeches. AS usual, we append a few typical speeches, merely to show what can be said inside of four minutes and to strike a key for the character of the talks. On this subject of life in camp many of our speakers have had personal experiences. And we urge them by all means to tell what they have seen. We must emphasize again that, while these typical speeches may be used in whole or in part where desired, we much prefer that Four Minute Men make up their own speeches in their own language, provided they observe the tone which is required of speakers appearing as Government representatives and the four minute contract. Typical Speech No. 1—General. Work of the Commission on Training Camp Activities. (By a member of the commission.) The Commission on Training Camp Activities was appointed to take charge of the work of supplying the normalities of life to the million and a half young men in our training camps. Considering that these men have broken every home tie and have left their friends, clubs, churches, libraries, theaters, and movie houses to enter into a life that is absolutely strange to most of them and to which everything is necessarily subordinated to the need of creating an efficient lighting force, the importance of the commission's work at once becomes apparent. An army in fighting trim is a contented army. Contentment for the average man can not be maintained without the normal relations of life. The positive side of the commission's work—that of supplying the men with a substitute for the recreational and relaxational opportunities which they have left behind—has been organized along the following lines: Inside the camps the Y. M. C. A. and Knights of Columbus provide a large share of the club life and entertainment. The American Library Association sees that an adequate supply of books and reading facilities are at the disposal of the troops. They have made arrangements for the distribution of the books in various ways inside the camps, so that every soldier has access to a well selected library. Recreative athletic work and camp music are provided by special committees. A fully equipped theater building, seating 3,000 people, is being built in each of the sixteen National Army camps. For this dramatic entertainment are associated most of the well-known theatrical producers and theatrical clubs. A long list of the foremost stars of America are booked. Outside the camp, the Playground and Recreation Association of America is aiding over 100 communities in their efforts to provide for entertainment for the thousands of men in the camps near them. Entertaining for the soldiers in the homes of the citizens is one of the most popular features of the hospitality program in these cities. "Take a soldier home for dinner" has become a slogan. On one Sunday in a single community 5,000 men were thus entertained. The Y. W. C. A. is providing hostess houses to afford the soldier a place to meet his family and friends. The negative side of the work of the commission, the problem of suppressing vice and the sale of alcohol to soldiers at or near Army camps, in accordance with sections 12 and 13 of the military draft law, is being attacked from many angles and with varied agencies. Closing of the red-light districts in many of the cities may be mentioned as an example of the work of this commission. Typical Speech No. 2—Y. M. C. A. The Work of the Y. M. C. A. in the Training Camps. (By a member of the commission.) The Commission on Training Camp Activities has given official recognition to the Y. M. C. A. and to the Knights of Columbus as the agencies for furnishing recreational facilities within the camps. The Y. M. C. A. works in close cooperation with the commission in offering to the men the club and general recreational rooms to which they were accustomed in civilian life and which they have left behind. From 9 to 14 recreational and social buildings are being erected in each of the National Army cantonments and at least six buildings will be erected in each of the National Guard camps. These include in each National Army cantonment an auditorium seating 3,000 people. Our last figures showed that contracts for 362 buildings had been let. By this time a great many more have been put up. In addition to this over 150 tents, 40 by 80 feet, have been provided for association purposes. It is of extreme importance that the men have such places in which to spend their leisure time. Four hundred special outfits, each outfit including, among other things, a piano, moving-picture machine, a phonograph, office supplies, postcards, pens, ink, pencils, stationery, and reading matter, have been supplied by the Y. M. C. A. to equip these buildings. It is estimated that the services of the Y. M. C. A. in training camps in this country alone will cost more than $11,000,000, The stationery bill alone for 1,500,000 men runs to a large daily figure and illustrates one of the simple necessities of life which must be supplied to the men. The money to provide for all of this is furnished by private subscription. All its entertainments in the camps are free of charge and all are nonsectarian. It is the aim of the Y. M. C. A. to supply every service for which there is a demand. About 3,000 war-work secretaries are in the field. The program includes moving pictures, professional entertainments, mass singing, and amateur dramatics. The immensity of the work is astonishing. The plan for motion pictures alone involves the presentation of more than 10,000,000 feet of film every week. The association buildings are freely placed at the disposal of Army chaplains for religious services. The same building is often used in turn for Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish services. A weekly newspaper of eight pages, by name " In Trench and Camp," is published under the general auspices of the Y. M. C. A. for each of the 32 National Guard and National Army camps. This paper conveys the general news of interest to soldiers in every cantonment and i3 one of the ways by which the men in our Army are informed of the social activities which are taking place in the camps. 8 Typical Illustrative Speeches—(Continued). ON the previous page we print two speeches supplied by the commission. We here give two additional speeches showing again how this subject can be handled either in a general way or with reference to some particular organization. We call attention also to the work of the Playgrounds Association which is operating in towns near camps. Some of our speakers have been active in this cause, and a talk from such men on the work in which they themselves have cooperated should be highly effective. Typical Speech No. 3—General. Ladies and Gentlemen: I have a message for you from Washington about the things that the Government is doing and the things it is going to do for the boys in khaki. Dark clouds hang over us. But we must see also the silver lining; and the sun shining; and the twinkle of stars. All war is terrible, a horrible blackness. And this war is the most horrible of all, in the number of men and families that must suffer. But the greater horror lies only in the greater number. The individual suffers less than ever before, thanks to advanced science and thanks to gigantic organizations to relieve suffering. For instance, stop to consider that it was not until the middle of the Civil War when chloroform was discovered, and until that time soldiers' arms and legs were cut off without a drop of anesthetic. As to the American Army now: Never before in history has an army been so guarded; never before have such special home comforts been provided. A very few days after war was declared the Government appointed a commission, which at once enlisted charity and social organizations everywhere. Millions have already been spent to suppress vice, to bring education and study and character building into the camps and into the trenches. Millions more will be spent. For we shall not stint. We Americans feel that those boys drilling and carrying heavy bags, digging trenches, preparing for the great task—to them we owe everything—everything—everything. Statistics show that we can expect fourteen out of fifteen soldiers back unwounded. They must come back as clean men, good men, ready for their life work, better disciplined, and knowing more than they knew when they left home. The recreation centers, the movie shows, the classes in education, the concerts, and the clubhouses are in every cantonment, and in the trenches, too; and they will be in the prison camps of Germany, too. All of us can help build morale. Send a few player rolls or phonograph records to the soldiers; send housewives and little gifts as remembrances. When a man from the Y. M. 0. A. or the Knights of Columbus or the Young Men's Hebrew Association comes to see you, remember that all those religions are working together; their clubhouses are open to all soldiers alike. No matter to what organization you give, you are giving to the soldier, to cheer him and to help his body, his spirit, his soul. Remember that a great student of the Civil War said, "Music and correspondence with home are the two greatest factors in keeping the soldiers well." Letters mean so much away from home. So do not write merely to your own boy. Write to all your friends in camp. Show them that you are thinking of them and of their future when they come back from the war. Take an evening a week for such letters, and you have helped hoist the Stars and Stripes on high. Typical Speech No. 4—Y. M. C. A. Ladies and Gentlemen: At the very moment last April when the Government was making plans to organize and drill soldiers, it perfected its plans, too, for taking care of their physical comfort, and their fitness after the war. A commission was appointed by the War Department to look after the repression of vice around camps, recreation, study and character within the camps. Never before in history has an army been organized for war with such wonderful provisions. Millions of dollars have been spent, and millions more will be. Under this commission, there operate such organizations as the Y. M. C. A., the Knights of Columbus, the Young Men's Hebrew Association, the Library Association, and scores of others. As this week has been set aside for the Y. M. C. A. on a thirty-five million dollar subscription campaign, I want to say a few words especially regarding this body. In every camp there are Y. M. C. A. clubhouses, at least one for a brigade and often one for a regiment. They are out-and-out clubhouses, open to all soldiers alike. Roman Catholic masses have often been held in Y. M. C. A. camp buildings, followed by the Protestant service. The Hebrews are now installing desks in their own quarters within the Y. M. C. A. buildings. In fact, the Hebrews are particularly earnest supporters of the Soldiers' Y. M. C. A. The Knights of Columbus, likewise, open their doors to all. I wish you could follow me this evening into one of the cantonments. The day's work is over. The soldiers are free but not idle. You see, there is too much going on to give a man time for idling. In one building there is a concert. In another there is a lecture, perhaps, or a study class in French. In one Y. M. C. A. the boys are seeing a movie show to-night, just such as you see here, for the Y.M.C.A is spending $1,000 a week on films. When the show is over they will play checkers; better than gambling games, you know; or they will go to the club library; or they will sit at the big, long desks, writing letters home. The Y. M. C. A. has already followed the men to the trenches, with dugout for clubhouses in the trench. . By Christmas many an American may be in a German prison; by Easter, perhaps thousands more. But thank God for the Y. M. C. A.! When we were still neutral, they looked after Germany's prisoners in France, as well as the French prisoners in Germany. So Germany, for fear of losing this help, will permit the American Y. M. C. A. in German prison camps. There will be no starving of American prisoners, for the Y. M. C. A. will feed them with food imported from America. There will be proper housing, proper clothing, proper sanitation, and proper medical care. And the Americans will come back home well, sound, ready for work. A wonderful, epoch-making war work, thanks to the Y. M. C. A.! WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1917