Detail View: World War I Collection: The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman empire, 1915-16

Collection Name: 
World War I Pamphlets Collection
Title: 
The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman empire, 1915-16
Subtitle: 
documents presented to Viscount Grey of Fallodon, secretary of state for foreign affairs
Name Part: 
Toynbee, Arnold Joseph, 1889-1975,
Name Display Form: 
Toynbee, Arnold, 1889-1975
Name Part: 
Great Britain. Foreign Office
Name Part Date: 
1838-1922
Name Display Form: 
Great Britain. Foreign Office, 1838-1922
Type of Resource: 
Text
Date Issued: 
1916
Date Created: 
Undated
Issuance: 
monographic
Place Term: 
London
Publisher: 
H.M. Stationery Off.
Form: 
electronic
Internet Media Type: 
application/pdf
Extent: 
xlii, 684 p. map 23 cm
Digital Origin: 
reformatted digital
Note: 
by Viscount Bryce
Subject Topic: 
World War, 1914-1918--Atrocities
Subject Authority: 
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85148238
Subject Geographic: 
Armenia--History--1901-
Subject Geographic Authority: 
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85007274
Subject Topic: 
Armenian Genocide, 1915-1923
Subject Authority: 
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85007296
Subject Topic: 
Armenians -- Turkey
Subject Authority: 
local
Subject Topic: 
Armenian question
Subject Authority: 
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85007302
Subject Topic: 
World War, 1914-1918--Refugees
Subject Authority: 
http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2010119068
Related Item: 
Great Britain. Foreign Office. Miscellaneous no. 31, 1916
Related Item: 
Miscellaneous (Great Britain. Foreign Office) 1916, no. 31
Identifier: 
i71731027.pdf
Identifier ARK: 
https://ark.colorado.edu/ark:/47540/7v3r3h86c6nr
Physical Location: 
University of Colorado Boulder Libraries Rare and Distinctive Collections
Access Condition: 
The organization that has made the Item available believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries. Please refer to the organization that has made the Item available for more information.
Access Condition Authority: 
https://rightsstatements.org/page/NoC-US/1.0/?language=en
Text: 
For Official Use. MISCELLANEOUS NO. 31 (1916). THE TREATMENT OF ARMENIANS in the Ottoman Empire 1915-16 Documents presented to YISCOUNT GEEY OP FALLODON Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs By Viscount Bryce With a preface by VISCOUNT BRYCE LONDON: PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE By SIR JOSEPH CAUSTON and SONS, Limited, 9, Eastcheap, E.C. To De purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN and SONS, Limited, 29, Breams Buildings, Fetter Lane, E.C., and 54, St. Mary Street, Cardiff ; or H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE (Scottish Branch), 23, Forth Street, Edinburgh ; or E. PONSONBY, Limited, 116, Grafton Street, Dublin ; or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, the United States of America and other Foreign Countries of T. FISHER UNWIN, Limited, London, W.C. 1916. Price Two Shillings. TABLE OF CONTENTS. The titles are italicised in the case of documents which relate merely to the condition of refugees in Egypt and Caucasia, and not to the events in Turkey and N.W. Persia of which these refugees had been the victims. PAGE Map of Districts affected ...... ... ......Frontispiece Correspondence between Viscount Gr$y of Fallodon and Viscount Bryce ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xv. Preface by Viscount Bryce ... ... ... ... ... ... xxi. Letter from Mr. H. A. L. Fisher, Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield Uni- versity, to Viscount Bryce ... ... ... ... ... xxix. Letter from Prof. Gilbert Murray, Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Oxford, to Viscount Bryce ... ... ... xxxi. Letter from Mr. Moorfield Storey, ex-President of the American Bar Association, to Viscount Bryce ... ... ... ... ... xxxii. Letter from Four German Missionaries to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at Berlin ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxxiii. Memorandum by the Editor of the Documents ... ... ... xxxv. I.—General Descriptions. ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 1. Despatch from Mr. Henry Wood, Correspondent of the American " United Press " at Constantinople ; pub- lished in the American Press, 14th August, 1915 ... 2 2. Despatch, dated 11th June, 1915, from an especially well-informed neutral source at Constantinople ; com- municated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... ...... 4 3. Extract from a letter, dated Arabkir, 25th June/8th July, 1915, communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 5 4. Letter from an authoritative source, dated Constanti- nople, 15/28th June, 1915 ; published in the New York ^ journal " Gotchnag," 28th August, 1915 ...... 6 5. Letter from the same source, dated Constantinople, 12 /25th July, 1915 ; published in the New York journal " Gotchnag/' 28th August, 1915............ 8 6. Letter from the same source, dated Constantinople, 13/26th July, 1915, and addressed to a distinguished Armenian resident beyond the Ottoman frontier ... 9 7. Letter from the same source, dated Constantinople, 2nd/15th August, 1915, and addressed to the same Armenian resident beyond the Ottoman frontier ... 12 8. Extracts from a letter, dated Athens, 8th/21st July, 1915, from an Armenian formerly resident in Turkey to a prominent Armenian in Western Europe ...... 17 9. Letter, dated 3rd/16th August, 1915, conveyed beyond the Ottoman frontier by an Armenian refugee from Cilicia in the sole of her shoe ... ... ... ... 20 10. Letter from Mr. N., a foreign resident at Constantinople, dated 27th August, 1915 ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief .. 22 (B315) 33750 & 90. A > iv. Contents, PAGE 11. Memorandum dated 15 /28th October, 1915, from a well- informed source at Bukarest, relating to the extermina- tion of the Armenians in Turkey ......... 23 12. Information regarding events in Armenia, published in the " Sonnenaufgang " (organ of the " German League for the Promotion of Christian Charitable Work in the East "), October, 1915 ; and in the " Allgemeine Mis- sions-Zeitschrift," November, 1915 ...... ... 25 13. Statement made by a foreign resident at Constantinople to a Swiss gentleman at Geneva ; communicated by the latter ..................... 28 14. Cablegram, dated 4th May, 1916, transmitted through the State Department at Washington to the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief, from the Committee's representatives in Turkey ... ... ... 29 II.—Vilayet of Van..................... 31 15. The American Mission at Van : Narrative printed privately in the United States by Miss Grace Higley Knapp (1915) .................. 32 16. Van : Letter dated Van, 7th June, 1915, from Mr. Y. K. Rushdouni ; published in the " Manchester Guardian," 2nd August, 1915.................. 48 17. Van : Narrative by Mr. Y. K. Rushdouni, published serially in the Armenian journal " Gotchnag," of New York..................... 52 18. Van after the Turkish retreat: Letter from Herr Sporri, of the German Mission at Van, published in the German journal " Sonnenaufgang," October, 1915 ...... 71 19. Van after the massacres : Narrative of Mr. A. S. Safrastian, dated Van, 2nd December, 1915, and published in the Armenian journal " Ararat," of London, January, 1916 ............... 72 20. Van : Interview with a refugee, Mrs. Gazarian, pub- lished in the " Pioneer Press," of St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A...................... 76 III.—Vilayet of Bitlis .................. 79 21. The North-Eastern Vilayets : Statement communicated by the Refugee Roupen, of Sassoun, to the Armenian Community at Moscow ; published in the Russian Press, and subsequently reprinted in the " Gazette de Lau- sanne," 13th February, 1916 ............ 80 22. Bitlis, Moush and Sassoun : Record of an interview with Roupen, of Sassoun, by Mr. A. S. Safrastian, dated Tiflis, 6th November, 1915 ............ 83 23. Moush : Statement by a German eye-witness of occur- rences at Moush; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ...... SS 24. Moush District: Narrative of a deported woman, related by her to Mr. Vartkes, of Moush, recorded by him on the 25th July, 1915, and published subsequently in the Armenian journal " Van-Tosp "......... 92 25. Moush : Resume* of information furnished by refugees in the Caucasus and published in the Caucasian Press, especially in the Armenian journal " Mschak"; compiled by Mr. G. H. Paelian, and communicated by him to the Armenian journal " Ararat," of London, March, 1916.................. 94 Contents. PAGE 26. Bitlis : Letter dated 14th October, 1915, from a foreign resident at Bitlis to a German official ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief .................. IV.—Azerbaijan and Hakkiari ... ... ... ... ... 99 27. Urmia: Statement by the Rev. William A. Slicdd, D.D., of the American (Presbyterian) Mission Station n.t Urmia ; communicated by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. ... ... 100 28. First Exodus from Urmia, January, 1915 : Repoit, dated 1st March, 1915, from the Rev. Robert M. Labaree, of the American Mission Station at Urmia, to the Hon. F. Willoughby Smith, U.S. Consul at Tillis ; communicated by the Board of Foreign Missions ″ »i the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. ... ... ... 105 29. Azerbaijan, behind the Russian front: F.\ 1 rart.s from a series of letters by the Rev. Robert- M. Labaree; communicated by the Board of For i^.n Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. ... ... ... 110 30. Tabriz: Letter dated Tabriz, 17th March, 1915, from the Rev. F. N. Jessup ; communicated by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A....................... 113 31. Urmia during the Turco-Kurdish occupation : Diary of a Missionary, edited by Miss Mary Schauffler Platt, and published by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S A. ......... 119 32. Urmia after its evacuation by the Turks and Kurds : Letter dated Urmia, 20th May, 1915, from Mrs. J. P. Cochran to friends in the United States ; communicated by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. "............... 151 33. Urmia : Letter, dated Urmia, 25th May, 1915, from the Rev. Y. M. Nisan to the Rev. F. N. Heazell, Organising Secretary of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission ... ...... ............ 156 34. Urmia : Narrativj of Dr. Jacob Sargis, recorded in a despatch, dated Petrograd, 12th February, 1916, from the correspondent at Petrograd of the American "Associated Press" ... ... ...... ... 158 35. Urmia: Extracts from the Annual Report (for the year 1915) presented by the Medical Department at Urmia to the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A................ 161 36. Urmia, Salmas and Hakkiari : Statement by Mr. Paul Shimmon, published in the Armenian journal " Ararat," of London, November, 1915 ... ... ... ... 164 37. Hakkiari : Statement by Mr. Paul Shimmon, published in the " Churchman " newspaper, and subsequently issued as a pamphlet ; communicated by Mrs. D. S. Margoliouth, of Oxford ......... ...... 169 38. Refugees from the Hakkiari District : Series of extracts from letters by members of the American Mission Station at Urmia ; communicated by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A...................... 172 vi. Contents. PAGE 39. Refugees from Hakkiari : Letter dated 26th September / 9th October, 1915, from a relative of Mar Shimun, the Patriarch ; communicated by the Rev. F. N. Heazell... 175 40. Refugees from Hakkiari : Letter, dated Diliman, 1st/14th April, 1916, from Surma, the sister of Mar Shimun, to Mrs. D. S. Margoliouth, of Oxford ... ... 177 41. The Nestorians of the Bohtan District: Letter, dated Salmas, 6th March, 1916, from the Rev. E.W. McDowell, of the Urmia Mission Station, reporting information brought by a young man (with whom Mr. McDowell was previously acquainted) who had escaped the massacre ; communicated by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. ......... 180 42. Second Exodus from Urmia : Letter dated Tabriz, 20th August, 1915, from Mr. Hugo A. Miiller (Treasurer of the American Mission Station at Urmia) ; com- municated by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. ......... 182 43. Second Exodus from Urmia : Narrative of a Nestorian victim, the wife of the Rev. David Jacob, of Urmia, published in the Armenian journal " Ararat," of London, January, 1916 ............... 184 44. Urmia District : Report on the distribution of relief, covering the period 1st June to 31st December, 1915 ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 187 45. Azerbaijan : Statement, dated Tiflis, 22nd February, 1916, by Mr. M. Philips Price, War Correspondent for various British and American newspapers on the Caucasian Front; communicated to Aneurin Williams, Esq., M.P., and published in the Armenian journal " Ararat," of London, March, 1916 ......... 191 V.—The Refugees in the Caucasus ............ 193 46. The Flight to the Caucasus : Despatches to the Armenian journal " Horizon," of Tiflis, from Mr. Sampson Aroutiounian, President of the Armenian National Committee of Tiflis, who went in person to meet the Refugees ... ... ... ... ... ... 194 47. The Flight to the Caucasus : Despatch from the special correspondent of the Armenian journal " Arev," of Bakou ..................... 197 48. Memorandum on the condition of Armenian Refugees in the Caucasus and Orphans at Van; compiled in the British Foreign Office from information, dated 9th Decem- ber, 1915, which was furnished by Mr. Stevens, British Consul at Batoum ... ... ... ... ... ... 199 49. Memorandum on the condition of Armenian Refugees in the Caucasus ; compiled in the British Foreign Office from information, dated 29th December, 1915, which was furnished by Mr. Stevens, British Consul at Batoum ... 203 50. Report on the activity of Armenian Refugee Relief Organisations in the Caucasus and Turkish Armenia ; enclosed in a despatch (No. I.), dated Batoum, 3rd January, 1916, from Mr. Consul Stevens to the British Foreign Office 208 51. Refugees in the Caucasus : Letter dated Erivan, 29th December, 1915, from the Rev. S. G. Wilson to Dr. Samuel T. Dutton, Secretary of the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ,.. ... ... ... 216 Contents. vii. PAGE 52. Repatriation of Refugees: Letter, dated Erivan (?), March, 1916, from the Rev. S. G. Wilson ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... 219 VI.—Vilayet of Erzeroum.................. 221 53. Erzeroum: Record of an Interview between the Rev. H. J. Buxton and the Rev. Robert Stapleton, a missionary of the American Board, resident at Erzeroum from before the outbreak of war until after the capture of the city by the Russians ... ... ... ... 222 54. Erzeroum: Report, dated 25th September, 191*5, drawn up by the American Consul-General at Trebizond, after his return from a visit to Erzeroum ; communi- cated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief .................. 228 55. Erzeroum : Abstract of a Report by Mr. B. H. Khou- nountz, representative of the " All-Russian Urban Union," on a visit to Erzeroum after the Russian occupation ; published in the Armenian journal " Horizon," of Tiflis, 25th February, 1916 ...... 231 56. Erzeroum : Abstract of a Report by Dr. Y. Minassian, who accompanied Mr. Khounountz to Erzeroum as representative of the Caucasian Section of the " All- Russian Urban Union " ; published in the Armenian journal " Mschak," of Tiflis, 8th March, 1916...... 233 57. Erzeroum : Statement by Mr. A. S. Safrastian, dated Tiflis, 15th March, 1916............... 236 58. Erzeroum : Statement by the Kurd Ali-Aghazad6 Faro, published in the Armenian journal "Mschak," 19th December, 1915 ............... 241 59. Baibourt : Narrative of an Armenian lady deported in the third convoy ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... 242 60. Baibourt: Statement, reproduced from the Armenian journal " Horizon," of Tiflis, in the Armenian journal " Gotchnag," of New York, 18th March, 1916...... 244 61. Baibourt, Keghi, and Erzindjan : Letter, dated Er- zeroum, 25th May/7th June, 1915 ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ............... ..'. ... 245 62. Erzindjan : Statement by two Red Cross Nurses of Danish Nationality, formerly in the service of the German Military Mission at Erzeroum ; communicated by a Swiss gentleman of Geneva ... ......... 246 63. Kamakh and Erzeroum : Statement published in the New York journal "Gotchnag," 4th September, 1915... 255 VII.—Vilayet of Mamouret-ul-Aziz ... ... ... ... 257 64. H. : Statement made by Miss DA., a Danish lady in the service of the German Red Cross at H., to Mr. DB., at Basle, and communicated by Mr. DB. to Lord Bryce... 258 65. H. : Report, dated 11th July, 1915, from a foreign resident at H. ; communicated by the American Com- mittee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... 262 66. H. : Memorandum forwarded by a foreign resident at H. (the author of the preceding report) ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ..................... 265 viii. Contents. PAGE 67. H. : Narrative of an Armenian Refugee from H. ; communicated to Lord Bryce by the correspondent of the London " Times " at Bukarest ......... 268 68. Mamouret-ul-Aziz: Narrative of an Armenian lady deported from C. (a place half-an-hour's distance from H.), describing her journey from C. to Ras-ul-Ain ; written after her escape from Turkey, and dated Alexandria, 2nd November, 1915 ; published in the Armenian journal " Gotchnag," of New York, 8th January, 1916 .................. 271 69. H. : Statement by the Principal of the College, dated 19th July, 1915; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ...... 278 70. H. : Statement by the Principal of the College, dated 19th July, 1915, relating to the deportation of Armenians from villages in the neighbourhood of H. ; communi- cated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief .................. 281 71. H. : Letter, dated 10th November, 1915, from the Principal of the College at H. to Mr. N. at Constanti- nople; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 282 VIII.—Vilayet of Trebizond, and Sandjak of Shabin Kara- Hissar ..................... 285 72. Trebizond : Report from a foreign resident at Trebi- zond ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 286 73. Trebizond : Extracts from an interview with Comm. G. Gorrini, late Italian Consul-General at Trebizond ; published in the journal " II Messaggero," of Rome, 25th August, 1915.................. 290 74. Trebizond : Narrative of the Montenegrin Kavass of the local branch of the Ottoman Bank ; published in the Armenian journal " Arev," of Alexandria, 2nd October, 1915 .................. 293 75. Kerasond (Kiresoun),Trebizond and Shabin Kara-Hissar : Evidence collected by an Armenian gentleman from eye-witnesses now in Roumania; communicated by the correspondent of the London " Times " at Bukarest ... 294 76. Trebizond and Erzeroum : Despatch from the corres- pondent of the London " Times " at Bukarest, dated Bukarest, 18th May, and published on the 22nd May, 1916........................ 299 IX.—Sivas : The City and Parts of the Vilayet ... ... 301 77. Sivas : Letter from a foreign resident at Sivas, dated 13th July, 1915; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ...... 302 78. Sivas : Letter written from Malatia by Miss Mary L. Graffam, Principal of the Girls' High School at Sivas, to a correspondent at Constantinople ; reprinted from the Boston "Missionary Herald," December, 1915 ... 305 79. Extracts from a letter, dated Massachusetts, 29th August, 1915, from another foreign resident at Sivas to Mr. G. H. Paelian.................. 309 BO. Sivas : Narrative of a naturalised Ottoman subject, dated New York City, 10th March, 1916 ; communi- cate by the American Committee for Armenian and Sria? BJfef viii. Contents. PAGE 67. H. : Narrative of an Armenian Refugee from H. ; communicated to Lord Bryce by the correspondent of the London " Times " at Bukarest ......... 268 68. Mamouret-ul-Aziz: Narrative of an Armenian lady deported from C. (a place half-an-hour's distance from H.), describing her journey from C. to Ras-ul-Ain ; written after her escape from Turkey, and dated Alexandria, 2nd November, 1915 ; published in the Armenian journal " Gotchnag," of New York, 8th January, 1916 .................. 271 69. H. : Statement by the Principal of the College, dated 19th July, 1915; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ...... 278 70. H. : Statement by the Principal of the College, dated 19th July, 1915, relating to the deportation of Armenians from villages in the neighbourhood of H. ; communi- cated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief .................. 281 71. H. : Letter, dated 10th November, 1915, from the Principal of the College at H. to Mr. N. at Constanti- nople; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 282 VIII.—Vilayet of Trebizond, and Sandjak of Shabin Kara- Hissar ..................... 285 72. Trebizond : Report from a foreign resident at Trebi- zond ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 286 73. Trebizond : Extracts from an interview with Comm. G. Gorrini, late Italian Consul-General at Trebizond ; published in the journal " II Messaggero," of Rome, 25th August, 1915.................. 290 74. Trebizond : Narrative of the Montenegrin Kavass of the local branch of the Ottoman Bank ; published in the Armenian journal " Arev," of Alexandria, 2nd October, 1915 .................. 293 75. Kerasond (Kiresoun),Trebizond and Shabin Kara-Hissar : Evidence collected by an Armenian gentleman from eye-witnesses now in Roumania; communicated by the correspondent of the London " Times " at Bukarest ... 294 76. Trebizond and Erzeroum : Despatch from the corres- pondent of the London " Times " at Bukarest, dated Bukarest, 18th May, and published on the 22nd May, 1916........................ 299 IX.—Sivas : The City and Parts of the Vilayet ... ... 301 77. Sivas : Letter from a foreign resident at Sivas, dated 13th July, 1915; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ...... 302 78. Sivas : Letter written from Malatia by Miss Mary L. Graffam, Principal of the Girls' High School at Sivas, to a correspondent at Constantinople ; reprinted from the Boston "Missionary Herald," December, 1915 ... 305 79. Extracts from a letter, dated Massachusetts, 29th August, 1915, from another foreign resident at Sivas to Mr. G. H. Paelian.................. 309 BO. Sivas : Narrative of a naturalised Ottoman subject, dated New York City, 10th March, 1916 ; communi- cate by the American Committee for Armenian and Sria? BJfef x. Contents. PAGE 97. Angora: Extract from a letter dated 16th September, 1915; appended to the Memorandum (Doc. 11), dated 15/28th October, 1915, from a well-informed source at Bukarest ..................... 388 XIII.—Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa and Ismid ... 389 98. The Metropolitan Districts : Information published in the Armenian journal " Gotchnag," of New York ... 390 99. Constantinople : Letter, dated Constantinople, 13/26th October, 1915, from an Armenian inhabitant; published in the Armenian journal " Balkanian Mamoul," of Roustchouk .................. 392 100. Adrianople : Despatch from the correspondent of the London "Times" at Bukarest, dated 18th December and published on the 21st December, 1915 ...... 394 101. Broussa : Report by a foreign visitor to the city, dated 24th September, 1915 ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ...... 395 102. Adapazar : Statement, dated 24th September, 1915, by a foreign resident in Turkey ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief... 398 103. Adapazar : Fuller statement by the author of the preceding document ; published in the journal " The New Armenia," of New York, 15th May, 1916...... 400 XIV.—The Anatolian Railway ............... 407 104. The Anatolian Railway : Narrative of a journey, during the deportation of the Armenians, by a physician of foreign nationality, who had been resident in Turkey for ten years ; communicated by the American Com- mittee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... 409 105. Eski Shehr : Letter from an Armenian victim, published in the Armenian journal " Horizon/' of Tiflis, 30th October/12th November, 1915 ... ......... 414 106. Afiun Kara Hissar : Letter dated Afiun Kara Hissar, 10th/23rd September, 1915 ; published in the Armenian journal "Horizon," of Tiflis, 30th October/12th November, 1915 .................. 416 107. Afiun Kara Hissar : Resum6 of a letter, dated Afiun Kara Hissar, 2nd/15th October, 1915 ; appended to the Memorandum (Doc. 11), dated 15/28th October, 1915, from a well-informed source at Bukarest ... ... 417 108. Afiun Kara Hissar : Letter, dated Massachusetts, 22nd November, 1915, from an American traveller ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 418 109. Q. : Report from Dr. D., dated Q., 8th September, 1915 ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ............ 421 110. Q. : Report from Dr. E., dated Q., 3rd September, 1915 ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ............ 426 111. Q. : Letter from Dr. E., dated 27th October, 1915; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 431 112. Q. : Letter, dated Q., 25th November, 1915, from Dr. E. to Mr. N. at Constantinople ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief..................* ... 433 Contents. xi. PAGE 113. Konia : Resum6 of a letter, dated Konia, 2nd/15th October, 1915 ; appended to the Memorandum (Doc. 11), dated 15th/28th October, 1915, from a well-informed source at Bukarest ... ... ... ... ... 437 114. Baghdad Railway : Diary of a foreign resident in the town of B., on a section of the line; edited by William Walter Rockwell, Esq., Ph.D., and published by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief (1916) ..................... 438 115. AE., a town on the Railway: Series of Reports from a foreign resident at AE., communicated by the Ameri- can Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... 450 116. The Taurus and Amanus passes: Extracts from a Letter, dated Aleppo, 5th November, 1915, from Dr.L., a foreign resident in Turkey, to Mr. N. at Constanti- nople ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 454 117. The Amanus passes : Statements by two Swiss residents in Turkey ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 455 118. Smyrna — Aleppo — Damascus — Aleppo — Smyrna : Itinerary of a foreign traveller in Asiatic Turkey ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 459 XV.—Ciltcia (Vilayet of Adana and Sandjak of Marash) ... 465 119. Cilicia : Address (with enclosure), dated 3rd July, 1915, from the Armenian Colony in Egypt to His Excellency Lieutenant-General Sir J. G. Maxwell, Commander-in- Chief of His Britannic Majesty's Forces in Egypt ... 468 120. Cilicia : Letter, dated 20th June, 1915, from Dr. L., a foreign resident in Turkey ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief... 472 121. BM,: Letter from a foreign eye-witness, dated 6th July, 1915, on board a steamship ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief... 474 122. Zeitoun : Antecedents of the deportation, recorded by the Rev. Stephen Trowbridge, Secretary of the Cairo Committee of the American Red Cross, from an oral statement by the Rev. Dikran Andreasian, Pastor of the Armenian Protestant Church at Zeitoun ... ... 479 123. Exiles from Zeitoun : Diary of a foreign resident in the town of B. on the Cilician plain ; communicated by a Swiss gentleman of Geneva ............ 482 124. Exiles from Zeitoun : Further statement by the author of the preceding document; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief... 487 125. Exiles from Zeitoun : Letter, dated Konia, 17th July, 1915, from a foreign resident at Konia to Mr. N. at Constantinople ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... 490 126. AF. : Statement, dated 16th December, 1915, by a foreign resident at AF.; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... 492 127. AF. : Record of individual cases, drawn up by the author of the preceding statement, and dated 17th December, 1915 .................. 500 xii. Contents. PAGE 128. Adana : Statement, dated|3rd December, 1915, by a foreign resident at Adana; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief... 502 129. Adana : Statement, dated 9th May, 1916, by Miss Y., a foreign resident at Adana, recording her experiences there from September, 1914, to September, 1915 ... 505 XVI.—Jibal Mousa ..................... 511 130. Jibal Mousa : The defence of the mountain and the rescue of its defenders by the French Fleet; narrative of an eye-witness, the Rev. Dikran Andreasian, Pastor of the Armenian Protestant Church at Zeitoun ... 512 131. Jibal Mousa: Report, dated Egypt, 28th September, 1915, on the Armenian Refugees rescued and trans- ported to Port Said by the cruisers of the French Fleet ; drawn up by Mgr. Thorgom, Bishop of the Gregorian Community in Egypt ... ... ... ... ... 521 132. Jibal Mousa : Another report on the Refugees at Port Said, drawn up by Mr. Tovmas K. Muggerdichian, formerly Dragoman of the British Consulate at Diyarbekir 525 XVII.—The Towns of Ourfa and AC............. 527 133. Ourfa : Letter, dated Ourfa, 14th June, 1915, from Mr. K. ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 528 134. Ourfa : Extract from a letter by Mr. Tovmas K. Muggerdichian; published in the Armenian journal " Gotchnag," of New York, 1st April, 1916 ...... 530 135. Ourfa : Interview with Mrs. J. Vance Young, an eye- witness of the events at Ourfa; published in the "Egyptian Gazette," 28th September/I lth October, and reproduced in the Armenian journal " Houssaper," of Cairo, 30th September/13th October, 1915...... 531 136. Ourfa : Postscript to a memorandum (Doc. 141) by a foreign witness from Aleppo ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief... 532 137. AC. : Statement by Miss A., a foreign resident at AC, written subsequently to her departure from Turkey in September, 1915 ; communicated by the Rev. I. N. Camp, of Cairo......... ......... 533 138. AC. : Letters from an Armenian inhabitant, describing the deportation of Armenians from Cilicia ; communi- cated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief .................. 544 XVIII.—Vilayet of Aleppo.................. 545 139. Aleppo : Series of Reports from a foreign resident at Aleppo ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 547 140. Aleppo: Memorandum, dated Aleppo, 18th June/lst July, 1915 ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 551 141. Aleppo : Memorandum by a foreign witness from Aleppo ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... ... 552 142. Aleppo : Message, dated 17th February, 1916, from Fraulein O. ; published in the German journal " Son- nenaufgang," April, 1916 ... ... ..; ... Contents* xiii. PAGE XTX.—Vilayet of Damascus and Sandjak of Der-el-Zor ... 557 143. Damascus : Report from a foreign resident at Damascus, dated 20th September, but containing information up to the 3rd October, 1915; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief... 558 144. Exiles on the Euphrates : Record, dated Erzeroum, June, 1915, by M. Henry Barby, of an interview with Dr. H. Toroyan, an Armenian physician formerly in the service of the Ottoman Army; published in " Le Journal/' of Paris, 13th July, 1916 ......... 562 145. Der-el-Zor: Letter, dated 12th July, 1915, from Schwester L. Mohring, a German missionary, describing her journey from Baghdad to the passes of Amanus ; published in the German journal " Sonnenaufgang," September, 1915 .................. 566 XX.—Documents received while going to press ... ... 571 146. Despatch from Mr. Henry Wood (Doc. 1) : Fuller version, obtained through the courtesy of the representa- tive of the American " United Press " in London ... 572 147. Urmia, Salmas, and Hakkiari : Fuller statement by Mr. Paul Shimmon, edited, as a pamphlet, by the Rev. F. N. Heazell, Organising Secretary of the Arch- bishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission ... ... 577 148. First exodus* from Urmia: Narrative of Mr. J. D. Barnard, of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission ; published in the " Assyrian Mission Quarterly Paper," April, 1915 ............... 587 149. Erzeroum : Letter, dated 21st March, 1916, from the Rev. Robert S. Stapleton to the Hon. F. Willoughby Smith, U.S. Consul at TifLis ; communicated by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief... 589 A Summary of Armenian History up to and including the year 1915 591 I.—The European War and Armenia ... ... ... ... 593 II.—An Outline of Armenian History ... ... ... ... 596 III.—-Dispersion and Distribution of the Armenian Nation ... 607 IV.—The Armenian People and the Ottoman Government ... 617 V.-—The Deportations of 1915 : Antecedents ... ... ... 627 VI.—The Deportations of 1915 : Procedure............ 637 Annexe A ... ...... ...... ... ...... 654 Annexe B ........................ 657 Annexe C ........................ 659 Annexe D ........................ 661 Annexe E ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 662 Annexe F ........................ 664 Index of Places referred to in the Documents ......... 669 150. Message, dated 22nd July, 1916, from Mr. N., of Con- stantinople ; communicated by the American Com- mittee for Armenian and Syrian Relief ... ... ... 684 CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN VISCOUNT GREY OF FALLODON Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs AND VISCOUNT BRYCE. LETTER FROM VISCOUNT BRYCE TO VISCOUNT GREY OP FALLODON, SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS. July 1st, 1916. My dear Sir Edward, In the autumn of 1915 accounts of massacres and depor- tations of the Christian population of Asiatic Turkey began to reach Western Europe and the Unit
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TOWN OF C. ARMENIAN VICTIM. 271 68. MAMOURET-UL-AZIZ : NARRATIVE OF AN ARMENIAN LADY DEPORTED FROM C. (A PLACE HALF-AN-HOUR'S DISTANCE FROM H.), DESCRIBING HER JOURNEY FROM C. TO RAS-UL- AIN ; WRITTEN AFTER HER ESCAPE FROM TURKEY, AND DATED ALEXANDRIA, 2nd NOVEMBER, 1915 ; PUBLISHED IN THE ARMENIAN JOURNAL " GOTCHNAG " OF NEW YORK, 8th JANUARY, 1916. Shortly after last Easter (1915), the Turkish officials searched the Armenian churches and schools of G., H., 0., AQ., AR., AS. and the surrounding villages, but without finding anything incriminating. Afterwards they took the keys of these buildings, and filled them with soldiers. They also searched private houses on the pretence of looking for arms and ammunition, but they did not find anything. After that the Town Crier announced that all arms were to bo handed over to the Government, and by this means a number of arms were collected. After that, they arrested from the town of 0. the following persons : Professor B., Mr. H. and his brother J., Mr. O. and his son P., Mr. Q., the brothers R., the brothers S., and T. Efifendi, as well as many others, old and young. They took them to the house of V. Agha, stripped them one by one and gave them 300 lashes on their backs. When they fainted, they threw them into a stable and waited until they had revived, in order to beat them again. The men who performed these cruel acts consisted of the following Turks : Commissary (Gendarme) W. Effendi the son of Commissary X., V. Agha, V.'s cousin Y., Z. Agha, Hadji CA. Bey the son of CB. Effendi, CD., and CE. the son of V. Agha. Among the Kurds implicated were the son of CF., CG., etc. The above-mentioned CF.'s son and another Kurd beat Mr. CH. until he was half dead. After beating T. Effendi in H., and tearing out his finger nails and the flesh of his hands and feet, they put a rope under his arms, dragged him to C, and threw him into prison. Then they entered his house, and, on the pretence of searching it, made his wife, who was in indifferent health, lie on the ground ; a soldier sat on her, and they began to beat her on her feet, asking her where they had hidden their arms. After a few days her husband died in the prison. In 0. they beat many young men to get their arms, so that they were obliged to buy arms from the Turks and give them to the Government*. When the Government was convinced that they had no more arms to surrender, they stopped tormenting them ; but after a few days' interval they took the young men to G., im- prisoned them there for a time, and then deported them in May. Meanwhile the women of 0. went to the German missionary, Dr. U., at G. and begged him to defend, them. Dr. U. came to C. and spoke in a church ; he advised the Armenians to trust the Turks absolutely. * See Docs. 82, 94 and 122. 272 TOWN OF C. When I was in C. I heard that in H. they had beaten CI. Agha, who subsequently disappeared. They plucked out the hair and nails of some of the professors. They dug out their eyes and branded them with red hot irons, so that some of them died immediately, and others first lost their reason and died thereafter. The Bishop of H., CJ., and other prominent Armenians were imprisoned and suffered many cruelties. On Friday, the 2nd July, they deported part of the Armenians of G. Their destination appeared to be Ourfa via Diyarbekir. On Saturday, the 3rd July, they deported all Armenians domiciled in the houses belonging to CL. in A. Street, in the town of G. Again their destination was supposed to be Ourfa, but via Malatia in this case. We ourselves were deported on the 4th July in the direction of Ourfa via Diyarbekir. The Town Crier proclaimed that on the following Tuesday those from B. and C. Streets in the Town of H. would be deported, on Wednesday the Armenians from AQ., on Thursday those from AR., and so on. CJ. and two hundred other Armenians were deported ten days before we were, that is on Wednesday, the 23rd June ; we do not know their destination. Their party started at midnight. Some of them dropped cards asking for money, and at AT. money was conveyed to them. But the following Monday, the 28th June, when the Armenian women of AT. went to the river, they saw some Turkish women washing blood-stained clothes. The Armenian women took the clothes from the Turkish women and brought them to the Governor at G. The Governor on hearing this went to AT. and found that the Bishop and the 200 Armenians had been killed. Up to the day we started, the Syrians had not yet been deported, and the women who had no husbands were also allowed to remain, but later on CK. Aghassi said that not a single Armenian would be left. After the Armenians were deported, the Government locked their houses and sealed them up. The men of CL.'s factory were also deported with their families. In C. some of the tradesmen were not deported, as, for example, CM. Agha the son of CN. Agha, the baker CO. and his family, and the two brothers, CP. and CQ. Aghas, the sons of Q. Agha. CQ. Agha became a Moslem, while the father was deported with the Bishop. All the people of C. started the same day. 1 think we were about 600 families. We had with us all our cattle and all our property. The first night we reached AU. and slept that night in the fields. The next day we passed many corpses heaped together under bridges and on the road; their blood had collected in pools. Probably these were the Armenians that were killed [68]ARMENIAN VICTIM. 273 with the Bishop, for the corpses were all those of men. We spent the night near AV. in a valley, and that night we had to drink water polluted with blood. We promised our guards money if they took us a better road and gave us clean water. The third day they again made us travel past corpses, and on Wednesday we reached A. The same morning the gendarmes that were accompanying us, W. Effendi and the other Turkish effendis that were with him, put down their chairs in front of our han, and sat down. Then they turned to us and told us that they had received telegrams from H., and that instead of going to Ourfa some of us would go to Yermag and the rest to Severeg, so that our journey would thus be shortened. " Only it is necessary," they added, " that your men should come and register themselves at the han at A., and state which way they would like to go. Thank the Sultan, who has made your journey shorter." After these Avords they all clapped their hands and forced us to do the same. Our men, being simple-minded, were deceived, and they even left their hats and coats to go to the han in. question. None of those that went returned. Then the rest of those above 16 years of age and all the old men were arrested and taken to the same place. After this the gendarmes beat the women and forced them to continue their journey. The women said : " We will not go unless our men go with us. You may kill us if you want to." But the Turkish officials told us that our men would follow us in a little while, and forced the women and children to march on, so they marched on crying and wailing. After half-an-hour's journey they made us sit in the fields, and all the Turkish officers returned to A. except one. The same day some Arab women (that is, Armenian gipsies) brought us bread, in spite of the officers' efforts to prevent them, and when they heard that we were crying because our men had been killed, they told us that they had seen them all passing by roped together. Again we went on under the hot burning sun, still crying. The sixth day they made us stop in a Kurdish village, where we spent the night. Next morning we saw that all the gendarmes that had returned to A. had now rejoined the convoy. Then Gendarme W. Effendi and the other Turks with him beat us and forced us under threat of death to give them all our money and ornaments. They said that, if we did not give them up, they would violate us and exile us to different places. We were afraid, and gave them everything we had. Then they gave us back from five piastres (10d.) to one medjidia (3s. 2d.) each, at the same time stating that our money and everything else would be returned to us at Diyarbekir, and that they had only taken our jewellery and money for safety. The ninth day, they took us to the top of a mountain, and the same Effendi and the other gendarmes searched us all over in a shameful manner ; they took all the silk-stuffs and everything [881274 TOWN OF C. else of value in our clothes and bedding. Half-an-hour later we reached a Kurdish village. There I met a Turkish soldier from Malatia, called CR., whom I knew. He pitied me, and told me that it was all over with us. " I would advise you," he said, " to leave your company and look after yourself." We were already within a short distance of Diyarbekir when two soldiers came from the Governor, to find out where we had been during the last nine days. Here the gendarmes that were with us took away all our cows and cattle ; they also kidnapped one woman and two girls. Outside the walls of Diyarbekir, we had to sit in the burning sun for 24 hours. That same day a number of Turks came from the city and kidnapped our little girls. Towards evening again we went on, still crying ; more Turks came to carry off our girls and young brides, and would not let us even open our mouths to protest. Then we left all our cattle and everything we had, to save our honour and our lives. It was already night when the Turks from Diyarbekir attacked us three times and carried off the girls and young brides who had fallen behind. After this we lost all sense of time. The next morning again the gendarmes searched us all over, and then made us march six hours. During these six hours we found no drinking water, and many women sank on the way from thirst and hunger. The third day after that they robbed us, and violated us near a place where there was water. Some days after, two Turks dressed in white coats followed us, and, every time they had a chance, carried off still more of our girls. The wife of CS. Effendi from C. had three daughters, one of whom was married. A coloured gendarme who was with us wanted to take these girls. The mother resisted, and was thrown over a bridge by one of the Turks. The poor woman broke her arm, but her mule-driver dragged her up again. Again the same Turks threw her down, with one of her daughters, from the top of the mountain. The moment the married daughter saw her mother and sister thrown down, she thrust the baby in her arms upon another woman, ran after them crying " Mother, mother ! " and threw herself down the same precipice. Some said that one of the Turkish officers went down after them and finished them off. After that Mrs. CS.'s remaining daughter and I disguised ourselves, and, each taking a child in our arms, abandoned everything and walked to Mardin. There our party joined us again. We stayed there eight days. There was an artificial lake there, and every night they opened the sluices and flooded the ground, so that in the panic they might kidnap some of the girls. They also attacked us every night and kidnapped little children, At last, one evening, they drove us on again and left us among the mountains. They wounded a woman because she did not wish to give up her daughter. When they were going to carry off another girl, I asked CT. Tchaoush, a Mardin man, to help us. He stopped them at once, and did [68] ARMENIAN VICTIM. 275 not let them take her away. He told us to stay there and not to start until further notice. The Kurds from the surrounding villages attacked us that night. CT. Tchaoush, who was in charge of us, immediately went up on to the heights and harangued them in Kurdish, telling them not to attack us. We were hungry and thirsty, and had no water to drink. CT. took some of our vessels and brought us water from a long way off. The wife of my brother-in-law, the tailor CU., had a baby born that night. The next morning we started again. CT. left some women with her and kept an eye on her from a distance. Then he put the mother and the new-born child on a beast, and brought her to us in safety. Again we marched six hours without water. Here a Turk kidnapped the son of the woman who had been thrown down the mountain side. Finally, in the last stages of hunger and exhaustion, we reached Viran Shehr. Many had already been left on the road. We had nothing more to eat until we reached Ras-ul-Ain. A fourth part of our convoy had already perished of starvation. Just before reaching Ras-ul-Ain we marched through the whole of one night. We passed three wells choked writh corpses up to the brim. The women that went before us encountered three wounded women who crawled out of these wells and asked for bread. These three women went on in our company towards Ras-ul-Ain. Two of them died on the way, and the tlii rd was sent to Der-el-Zor with the convoy. It was here that CV., the sister of CW., a girl about 18 or 19 years old, fell down because she could not walk any further. Her mother and sister-in-law kissed her, crying, and left her. We were forced to leave her by herself, because the soldiers would not let any one stay behind with her. We did not see a single Armenian until we reached Ras-ul-Ain. There we found many deported Armenians who had come from Erzeroum, Egin, Keghi, and other places. They were all on their way to Der-el-Zor. At Ras-ul-Ain we suddenly met CX. Agha of H. He had come from Aleppo to help us. He wanted to save at least a few of the party and take them to Aleppo. He advised us to go to the house of CY. Bey, a Circassian, or to the house of his son-in-law, so that he might convey us into safety from there. At Ras-ul-Ain a great many of the Armenians found refuge in the houses of some Tchetchens (a tribe akin to the Circassians), but afterwards the Government removed them all from the Tchetchens' houses to deport them to Der-el-Zor. Only my batch, consisting of forty-one people, were left in the house of this CY. Bey, and we were safe here because the Bey and his friends were Government people. The first moment that we saw CX. Agha we thought we had seen an angel from Heaven, and cried to him : " CX. Agha, save us." When the Tchetchens heard his name, they discovered that he was an Armenian, and immedi- ately attacked him. He was almost killed, but withstood them by his bravery and address ; he told them that he had been sent [68] 276 TOWN OF C. there specially by the Government, and turning immediately to us, he gave us to understand that those who went to CY. Bey's house would be saved. CX. Agha took the next train and returned to Aleppo. He tried every means to save us, and after fifteen days he came back. The Circassians (or Tchetchens) endeavoured to force us to become Moslems, but we answered them : ff We will throw ourselves into the water and die, but we will not become Moslems." The Tchetchens were surprised at these words, and said they had never seen people like this, so zealous for their honour and their religion and so devoted to each other. CX. Agha found this out and went to the chief of the Tchetchens ; he bribed him, and then, with superb courage, conducted us to the railway one by one, the station being about two miles from where we were. It was Saturday evening when we reached Aleppo. Here for the first time we met some Armenian soldiers, who were almost crazy with joy when they saw us. We could hardly believe they were Armenians, until CX. Agha's father came after dark with some of these soldiers, carrying no lights, and took us to the Armenian Church. There they told us that if the Government should discover us and inquire how we came, we were to tell them that we had travelled at our own expense. They immediately brought us bread ; we had not eaten anything for twenty-four hours. There were a number of deported Armenians in the Church ; they came from different places and had been travelling for four months. They were so exhausted that about forty of them were dying every day. The priest who performed the ceremony could not drag himself home. From the deported Armenians in Aleppo we learned that the husbands of many of the women had been roped together and taken to Sheitan Deressi (Devil's Valley)*, where they were slaughtered with axes and knives. Here we gave up all hope of seeing our husbands again, being convinced that they were all killed. We heard that in some places they made the Armenians dig their own graves before they killed them. An Armenian soldier from Tchemesh-Getzak told me that the Turks were killing the Armenians and throwing them into the Euphrates, when six of them managed to cross the river and get away, after three days' journey through country littered with corpses. On Sunday morning I went to see the American Consul at Aleppo, and asked him to save me, as I was an American citizen. He asked me where my papers were. I told him they were taken from me on the way ; I told him all the circumstances, and he promised to help me. I went to him again the next day and told him how my parents were American citizens, and my husband also, and how my husband had lived in America for 18 years ; I told him he could prove it by asking the American Consul at H. or even the Washington Government. After five * See Doc. 9, page 21. [68] ARMENIAN VICTIM. 277 days had passed, he sent for me and made me tell my story in the Turkish language. He put my name in his book, and placed me in his kavass's house. Then he gave me a passport and sent me to Alexandretta in the company of some Russian subjects. We stayed fifteen days in Alexandretta. From there we reached Alexandria on board the American cruiser " Chester/' on the 22nd September, 1915. While I was in Ras-ul-Ain, we saw some Armenian girls in the houses of some Tchetchens. One of them was married to one of the Tchetchens. They begged us not to forget them if we were ever saved. J. Agha's wife and children reached Ras-ul-Ain. A Kurd came and said to them : " I am from the village of Karer ; you come with me, and I will take you to Karer until the end of the war." They believed him, and went to his house. Afterwards CX. Agha tried to save them, but they had already gone. H. Agha's wife and three daughters went to Der-el-Zor. The Turkish Government did not provide any food for us on the way ; one day only, at Diyarbekir, they gave us one loaf each, and again for about eight days at Mardin, but the bread was so hard that it cut our mouths. The son of Prof. B., his married daughter, and his future daughter-in-law, as well as the wife and two daughters of Mr. CZ., reached Aleppo in safety. CO. Agha's daughter and his little boy were kidnapped by the Turks. Only two of the boys were left with the mother, who reached Aleppo safely. Besides the gendarmes, Kurdish irregulars also followed us on the way, to kill those that were left behind. The clothes of those who underwent this deportation were all rotted by the end of the journey, and the exiles themselves had almost lost their reason. When they were given new clothes they did not know how to put them on, and when their hair was washed it came off bodily from their scalps. [68] 278 TOWN OF H. 69. H. : STATEMENT BY THE PRINCIPAL OF THE COLLEGE, DATED 19th JULY, 1915 ; COMMUNICATED BY THE AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR ARMENIAN AND SYRIAN RELIEF. I shall try to banish from my mind for the time the sense of great personal sorrow at losing hundreds of my friends here, and also my sense of utter defeat in being so unable to stop the awful tragedy or even mitigate to any degree its severity, and compel myself to give you concisely some of the cold facts of the past months, as they relate themselves to the College. I do so with the hope that the possession of these concrete facts may help you to do something there for the handful of dependants still left to us here. Buildings,—Seven of our big buildings are in the hands of the Government, only one remaining in our hands. The seven buildings in question are empty, except for twenty guards who are stationed there. I cannot tell you exactly the amount of loss we have sustained in money by robberies, breakages and other means, and there is no sign that the Turks will ever return these buildings to us. Constituency.—Approximately two-thirds of the girl pupils and six-sevenths of the boys have been taken away to death, exile or Moslem homes. Professors.—Four gone, three left, as follows :— Professor A.—Served College 35 years ; representative of the Americans with the Government, Protestant " Askabed," Pro- fessor of Turkish and History. Besides previous trouble, arrested May 1st without charge ; hair of head, moustache and beard pulled out, in vain effort to secure damaging confessions ; starved and hung by arms for a day and a night, and severely beaten several times ; taken out towards Diyarbekir about June 20th, and murdered in general massacre on the road. Professor B.—Served College 33 years, studied at Ann Arbor, Professor of Mathematics. Arrested about June 5th, and shared Prof. A.'s fate on the road. Professor C.—Taken to witness a man beaten almost to death ; became mentally deranged; started with his family about July 5th into exile under guard, and murdered beyond Malatia. Principal of Preparatory Department; studied at Princeton ; served College 20 years. Professor D.—Served College 16 years, studied at Edinburgh ; Professor of Mental and Moral Science. Arrested with Prof. A. and suffered same tortures ; also had three finger nails pulled out by the roots ; killed in same massacre. Professor E.—Served College 25 years. Arrested May 1st; not tortured, but sick in prison ; sent to Red Crescent Hospital, and after paying large bribes is now free. [69]
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ANNEXE E.* : STATISTICAL SCHEDULE OF ARMENIAN SCHOOLS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, DRAWN UP IN 1901-2 BY THE ARMENIAN PATRIARCHATE AT CONSTANTINOPLE. Geographical Districts. Schools. Boy Pupils. Girl Pupils. Teachers. The Six Vilayets. Sairt -___.- 3 163 84 11 Amasia-Marsovan - - - 9 1,524 814 54 Shabin Kara-Hissar - - 27 2,040 105 42 Erzeroum - - - - 27 1,956 1,178 85 Kighi - _ _. _ 27 1,336 367 43 Ba'ibourt - 9 645 199 32 Diyarbelrir - - - - 4 - 690 324 27 Harpout - - - 27 2,058 496 58 Eghin -___- 4 541 215 22 Tchemesh-Getzak- 12 456 272 15 Arabkir — — - - 18 713 223 25 Tcharsandjak - - - 12 617 189 18 Etesia — - - - - 8 1,091 571 26 Gurin - - - _ _ 12 736 78 20 Darande - - - - 2 260 70 5 Divrig- - - - - 10 757 100 20 Sivas -_-.__ 46 4,072 549 73 Bitlis ----- 12 571 63 20 Erzindjan - - - - 22 1,389 475 63 Kamakh - - - - 13 646 28 16 Bayazid - - - - 6 338 54 13 Moush - - - - 23 1,034 284 35 Van -_-__ 21 1,323 554 59 Lim and Gedoutz - — 3 203 56 6 Akhtamar — - - - 32 1,106 132 36 Derdjan - - - - 12 485 10 12 Isbir-Kiskim - - - 3 80 — 3 Passin - - - - - 7 315 __ 7 Khnyss - - - 8 352 15 12 Dikranakerd - - - 2 180 — 5 Palou - 8 505 50 15 Malatia - - - - 9 872 230 19 438 29,054 7,785 897 ClLICIA. Aintab - - - - 9 898 708 58 Antioch - - - - 10 440 47 10 Aleppo - - - - 2 438 249 18 Hadjin - - - - 4 508 69 12 Zeitcmn - - - - 10 605 85 15 Sis and the Neighbourhood - 7 476 165 19 Adana - - - - 25 1,947 808 69 Marash - - - - 23 1,361 378 44 90 6,673 2,509 245 * .Reprinted from " La Question Armenienne a la Lumiere des Documents," par " Marcel Leart " (Paris, 1913). These statistics appear to be the most recent available, but it must be noted that they are fourteen years out of date, and that the figures must have risen considerably by April, 1915. [Annexe E.] 663 Statistical Schedule of Armenian Schools—continued. Geographical Districts. Schools. Boy Pupils. Girl Pupils. Teachers. The Rest of the Empire. Adrianople - - - 6 314 251 22 Rodosto - - - - 9 1,017 856 48 Ismid ----- 38 5,404 3,103 212 Biledjik - 10 1,120 143 21 Kutahia - — — - 5 825 349 23 Smyrna - - — - 27 1,640 1,295 109 Angora - - - - 7 895 395 29 Kaisaria - - - „>- 42 3,795 1,140 125 Samsoun - - - - 27 1,361 344 59 Trebizond — - _ - 47 2,184 718 85 Baghdad - - - — 2 68 46 11 Yozgad - — - 12 1,197 557 43 Broussa - - — - 16 1,345 733 54 Balikesri-Panderma — - 8 700 634 35 Tokat ----- 11 1,408 558 50 Kastamouni - — - 3 110 50 2 Konia - — — — - 3 213 137 12 Armasha — — — - 2 190 110 6 275 23,786 11,419 946 Grand Total - 803 59,513 21,713 2,088 [Annexe E.] 664 STATISTICS OF SURVIVORS, ANNEXE F. : STATISTICAL ESTIMATE INCLUDED IN THE FIFTH BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR ARMENIAN AND SYRIAN RELIEF, DATED NEW YORK, 24th MAY, 1916. 1. The Extent of the Catastrophe. The most extensive and most difficult work carried on by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief lies within the borders of the Turkish Empire. Here, in January, 1915, the Armenians numbered between sixteen hundred thousand and two million. Precise statistics do not exist. The estimates of the Turkish Government are usually considered to be too low and those of the Armenian Patriarchate sometimes too high, suggesting a tendency in the one case to minimize and in the other to exaggerate the size and consequent importance of the Armenian population. Twelve months later, in January, 1916, from one-third to one-half of the Armenians in Turkey had fallen victims of deporta- tion, disease, starvation or massacre. As we note from a letter of Dr. Wilson's, dated Erivan, Russian Caucasus, 4th February, 1916, there were then 182,800 Armenian refugees in the Caucasus and 12,100 in the districts of Turkey at that time conquered by the Russians. The subsequent extensions of the Russian conquests towards the west and south have brought to light numbers of Armenians who were in hiding. At the end of 1915, there were also 9,000 Armenian refugees in Salmas, Persia. All these statistics are subject to fluctuation, due to the removal of the refugees from one region to another and also to the varying dates on which the enumerations or estimates were made. Bearing these critical considerations in mind we may tabulate the best figures as follows :— Aleppo, Damascus, Zor .. .. .. 486,000 Refugees in other parts of Turkey . . . . 300,000 Russian Caucasus .. . . .. .. 182,800 Armenians in districts of Turkey conquered by Russia ........ 12,100 Armenians in Salmas, Persia .. .. .. 9,000 --------- 989,900 If we may add to these numbers the undeported Armenian populations in Constantinople and Smyrna, perhaps 150,000 in all, we can perhaps estimate the total number of survivors at under 1,150,000. If we accept the estimate that the Armenian population of Turkey at the beginning of 1915 was between 1,600,000 and 2,000,000, we should compute the number of deaths at between 450,000 and 850,000. We shall probably be safe in saying that the Armenian dead number at least 600,000. Six hundred thousand men, women and children died within a year. There was recently held in New York City a Preparedness [Annexe F.] ESTIMATE OF AMERICAN RELIEF COMMITTEE. 665 Parade, which marched up Fifth Avenue twenty abreast and took about thirteen hours to pass a given point. From 10 a.m. till well into the evening, this great army of over 125,000 continued to tramp up the street. If the Armenian men, women.and children who died in Turkey within a twelvemonth should rise again and march in solemn procession to beg the assistance of the American people for their surviving brothers, the procession w^ould not be 125,000, but 600,000, four times as long. Marching twenty abreast it would take two days and two nights to pass Great Reviewing Stand. The mortality was higher in some regions than in others. From certain Armenian villages in the neighbourhood of Harpout, whose population was about two thousand, only 15*2 per cent, reached the goal of their deportation. Even if we make generous allowance for the number of men from these villages who may be still alive in the Army, and for the women and children who may have saved their lives by becoming Moslems, the mortality is unspeakably high. From other regions perhaps 25 per cent, have reached their goal, after marching hundreds of miles across the mountains down into the hot plains. From those portions of Asia Minor which are so situated that the Railway could assist in the deportation, the percentage of loss of life was far smaller, though here insufficient food and insanitary concentration camps have swollen the tolls of death. Especially from the cities on or near the coast of Cilicia, namely, Mersina, Tarsus and Adana, the deportation did not involve great loss of life. The Armenian inhabitants of Constantinople and of Smyrna, who really live in those cities and had not recently moved thither from the country, have not been deported. Consequently the total number of surviving Armenians in Turkey is greater than our Committee had feared. The fact that there are more survivors than we at first believed obliges us to enlarge our relief work till it becomes adequate to the crisis. 2. The Needs of the Survivors. Mr. W. W. Peet, Business Agent and Treasurer of the four Turkish Missions of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions with headquarters at Constantinople, has sent information, received by the State Department on the 17th March, to the effect that there are at least eight hundred thousand refugees in Turkey who need help. One-half or more of these are reported by the American Consul at Aleppo to be in the districts of Damascus, Zor and Aleppo. The general direction of deportation has been to force the exiles to go by train or on foot to the neighbourhood of Aleppo, whence they have been distributed in two directions. One of these is the region served by the Hidjaz Railway, built a few years ago to meet the needs of the Moslem pilgrims to Mecca. [Annexe F.] YY 2 $66 .STATISTICS OF SURVIVORS. The station of Ma'an, near the ruins of the ancient city of Petra, the point beyond which the Hidjaz Railway has always declined to transport Christians, is the southernmost point where Armenian exiles are to be found. The other territory to which large numbers of exiles have been deported is the region of Der-el-Zor on the Euphrates, six days' journey east-south-east of Aleppo. The Armenians have had to walk thither from Aleppo, though some of them struck across by a more direct route from the Armenian cities on the north. (Here follow, in the original, Documents 139 (d) and 14 of this volume.) Fortunately, the American Consul at Aleppo, Mr. Jackson, has the co-operation of the German Consul, Mr. Roessler in the work of relief. Certain members of the American Committee have for months felt great anxiety as to the condition of the nearly 500,000 exiles distributed to the region east and south of Aleppo. Details as to their condition have been hard to secure. Now we know what we had suspected before—that many exiles have only grass to *eat and that hundreds are dying daily of starvation. 3. The Way for Relief is Now Open. In 1915, the Turkish Government declined to give cordial -co-operation in the work of relieving the necessities of the Armenians. The authorities at Constantinople did not wish to have the Armenians helped by foreigners, because they thought it might encourage some of them in treasonable hopes. Con- stantinople therefore favoured having the relief money distributed through Turkish officials. According to the New York Times of the 19th October, 1915, the Turkish Government informed the State, Department at Washington that the American Red Cross would not be permitted to send surgeons and nurses to the aid of the Armenians in the Turkish Empire. The Turks barred not merely American Red Cross surgeons, nurses and relief agents, but also all other neutral foreigners. Early in 1916 some obstacles have fallen. On the 23rd March, 1916, Mr. Phillips, the American Charge d'Affaires at Con- stantinople, sent, on behalf of the Constantinople Chapter of the Red Cross, the following significant cablegram to the Secretary of State :— " Turkish Government now welcomes help, and through Minister of Interior authorizes American Red Cross, co-operating with Red Crescent, to conduct relief work for civilians of all races. [Annexe F.] ESTIMATE OF AMERICAN RELIEF COMMITTEE. 667 Great suffering throughout country, particularly at Constantinople and suburbs along the shores of Marmora, at Adrianople, Broussa and Smyrna. In these regions five hundred thousand, not comprising Armenian refugees, need help for bread. Hundreds dying of starvation. No relief in sight. Sugar and petroleum oil at famine prices. Typhus is spreading, high mortality. For immediate relief ten thousand pounds sterling estimated required for Constantinople Chapter administration before 1st May to procure foodstuffs. For more permanent relief, suggest importa- tion supplies by sea from Roumania and America. Neutrality guaranteed by American Red Cross to Entente Powers. Dis- tribution controlled by Constantinople Chapter through agencies, soup kitchens and dispensary. Some can pay cost price and industrial work proposed for others." In answer to this appeal, certain friends of our Committee raised £12,000 sterling and transmitted it to Constantinople, to be distributed by the Turkish Red Crescent for sufferers in Turkey, regardless of religious barriers.* * The Ottoman Government appears to have placed new difficulties in the way of this relief, before it could be brought into practical operation. —Editor. [Annexe F.] INDEX OF PLACES REFERRED TO IN THE DOCUMENTS. INDEX OF PLACES REFERRED TO IN THE DOCUMENTS IN THIS VOLUME. The figures placed against the names in this index denote the number of independent witnesses who mention the places in question, in the various connexions specified, in the headings to each column. Two or more documents emanating from the same source cannot be regarded as independent testimony and are, therefore, not separately enumerated. The index includes references to nam "s which have been withheld by the editor himself and are represented in the text by arbitrary signs, but not, of course, references to names tohich have been withheld from the editor and are represented in the text by blanks. The names of places beyond the Ottoman frontier where refugees have passed or stayed have been placed between brackets, to distinguish them from places in Ottoman territory through or to which exiles have been forcibly conducted by the Ottoman Government. 672 INDEX OF PLACES Massacre , Forcible Conversion, or Deportation, Arrival, Massacre or Armenian Inhabitants. Passage of Armenians Deported or taking Flight Name of Place. Replacement by Moslem No Mention Mouhadjirs of Elsewhere (immigrants). Mouhadjirs. A. Abijalu - - - — - 1 Ada- ----- 1 _ Adana ----- 1 11 3 Adana, vilayet - - - - _ 1 _ Adapazar ----- 1 5 - Adiaman—Hussi Mansour - - — 3 — Adiljevas ----- - 1 - Adranos ----- - _ 1 Adrianople _ - - _ - 2 - Afiun Kara-Hissar - - - — 1 3 Aghja Daghi - - - _ — _ 1 (Aghtalia) ----- - - 1 Agno ----- 1 - (Ailar) ----- - - 1 Aintab ----- 10 4 Ak Shehr ----- — 2 _ Alabash ----- — 3 _ Alashkerd ----- 3 _ Alashkerd District - - _ — 1 _ Alavund ----- — _ 1 Albek - - - - 1 _ Albustan - - - — - — 5 1 Aleppo _ _ _ - _ 2 32 Aleppo, vilayet - - - - - 2 - Alexandretta - - - - 1 _ (Alexandropol) - - - - - _ 2 (Alexandropol Town and District) - - 1 Alidjan—Aladin- - - _ - 2 - Amasia - - - - - — 7 2 Angegh ----- — 1 _ Angora ----- _ 10 2 Angora, vilayet- - - - - 2 - (Annenfeld) - - - - - - 1 Antioch - - _ - _ — 1 1 Antok --_-_ __ 1 _ Arabia. ----- _ 2 Arabkir - - - - 4 1 Arab-Pounar - . - - _ _ 1 Ardisbai - - - - - 1 Ardjish—Akantz - - _ - 5 _ Arghana ----- - _ 2 Arghana Maden _ - _ — _ 1 Armasha - - - - - ! 1 _ Armasha Convent _ - _ 1 Arslanbeg ----- - 1 — Artamid - - - - - 1 Artananz - - - - - | _ 1 _ (Arzap) - - - - - | - - 1 Asia Minor _ _ _ _ _ — 1 Asi Yozgad — — - — - - 1 Atabey _-. — — - - 1 - Attil __._._- — 1 — Avazaghpur - — — - - 1 _ Ayash - - - — - - 1 1 Azizia — — — — — - 1 - B Bab - _ _ 2 Babylonia- - - — - - - 1 Baghdad ----- _ _ 5 Baghlou _ _ - _ _ - 1 - Baghtche ----- - 1 1 Baghtchedjik—Bardezag - 10 - Baibourt ----- — 8 1 Bairak _____ _ 2 _ Bairamoglu — _ _ _ - - 1 Bakir Maden - - _ _ _ _ 1 {Bakou) ----- - — 2 Balikesri — - - - - _ 1 _ {Bambak) - - — - _ _ 1 Baranduz - _ - _ _ — 1 _ Barbaroud — - - - _ 1 __ (Barsoun) ----- _ - 1 Bashkala - - - - _ 6 1 Batoum - - — - - _ _ 1 Bayazid District — - - _ 1 - Baz -__-__ _ 1 _ Beinam Boghazi - - - - - 1 Beirout _ _ _ - _ _ 1 1 Beitias _ - _ _ _ _ 2 _ Beniani - — - - _ 1 _ Benli _____ _ 1 _ Bergri-Kala — — - - _ - 2 Berwar - — — - - _ 1 _ Besne - _ 1 _ Biredjik - - - - - — - 1 Bisherig ----- — 1 _ Bitlis _____ _ 13 _ Bitlis, vilayet — — - - _ 4 _ Black Sea Littoral _ _ _ _ 1 1 Boghaz Kessen - - - - _ 2 _ Bohtan District - — 1 _ Bor --____ j _ 1 _ Bosphorus, Villages on the Upper - _ 1 — Boulanik - - - - - _ v 3 _ Bozanti _____ _ 1 5 Broussa _____ _ 7 _ Broussa, vilayet - 1 — 674 INDEX OF PLACES Massacre, Forcible Conversion, or Deportation. Arrival, of Massacre oi Armenian Inhabitants. Passage of Armenians Deported or taking Flight Name op Plack. Replacement by Moslem No Mention Mouhadjirs of Flsewherp. immigrants). Mouhadjirs. C (Caucasia, Cis—Northern Caucasia) _ _ 1 Cilicia _____ _ 5 _ Constantinople - - - - - 6 3 Constantinople, American School at - 1 — Cosi ------ - 1 - D Dadush _ _ _ - - 1 Damascus ----- _ _ 8 Darawar ----- _ 1 _ (Delidjan) ----- _ _ 3 Degala - — — - - 1 Dengala ----- - 2 - Derdjan _____ _ 1 Dere Keui — - - - _ 1 _ Der-el-Zor - - - - _ 19 Derenda ----- _ 2 _ Dersim ----- _ 1 1 Develou - - - - _ 1 _ Deyirmeni River - - _ _ 2 Dhimotika - - _ _ _ 1 _ Dilgusha ----- - _ 1 - Diliman ----- _ 3 2 Divrig _____ — 3 - Diyarbekir - - - - — 15 2 Diyarbekir, vilayet — - - - 3 Djabaghtchour - — - - - 1 - Djera - - - — 1 — Djerablous - - - - — 1 _ (Djevanshir District) - - - _ - 1 Djevizlik ----- — - 1 Djezire _____ 1 — Djibal Mousa — Mousa Dagh — Djibal-al-Ahmar - - 3 - Djoulamerk - . - - 1 - (Djoulfa) ----- - — - 5 Dom ______ _ 1 — Dongol - - 1 - Dort Y61 - 1 11 — Doudjik—Tcharuk Dersim—Tcharik - 1 1 Drtadli ----- _ 1 — Duzasar _ ~ _ _ _ - 1 — E Egin -__.__ 3 (Elenovka) __″_¦_ - - 1 (Eliza vetpol) - - 1 Massacre, Forcible Conversion, or Deportation, Arrival, of Massacre or Armenian Inhabitants. Passage of Name of Place. Replacement by Moslem No Mention Armenians Deported or taking Flight iroro Mouhadjirs (immigrants). of Mouhadjirs. Elsewhere, (Elizavetpol Government) - - 3 Enderessi ----- _ 1 1 Entilli _-_-_ — — 3 Eregli ----- - 1 5 Eremer - - - - - _ 1 _ Erendjik ----- - 1 - Erer- _____ _ 1 _ (Erivan) — - - - - - — 2 (Erivan Government) — - - - 5 Erzeroum ----- 1 17 _ Erzeroum, vilayet _ _ _ _ 6 _ Erzindjan ----- 1 8 5 Eski Shehr - - - - _ 2 2 Etchangeri—Kiangri—Kingri - - 1 1 (Etchmiadzin) - - - - — — 2 Euphrates District _ _ _ - — 1 Euphrates River - — - — _ 5 Euphrates River, Tributaries of - - _ 1 Euzerli - — - — — _ 1 _ Everek . — - - — - _ 2 _ (Evlakh) - _ 1 Ezli ------ - 1 — F Fekke - - - — - 1 Frank-norshen - - - - _ 1 Fundadjak — — — - _ 3 _ Furnus -- — _._ 1 4 - G Gargar District - - - - 2 Garjgan - - - _ _ — 1 _ Gawar - _ _ _ _ _, 4 _ Geben - - __ 6 Gegve - - - - _. 1 Gemerek - — — — — _ 4 Gemleyik - - — — - _ 1 _ Geogtapa—Goktepe" - - - _ 3 1 Gereg - - — — _ _ _ 1 Geulik Station - — — - _ _ 3 Gheizin Han - - - - _ 1 Ginj District—Gendje- _ 1 1 Gishgishla- - - - _ _ _ 1 Goksoun—Gourksoun - - - _ 2 _ Gotni _____ _ 1 _ Govdoun - - - _ - _ 1 Gulpashan - — - - _ 6 _ Gumushkhana - - - - _ 2 Horns - — - - Husseinig — — — - Hussi Mansour - - Idlib (Igdir) - - Ilidja - Ineboli - - Iriawa - - Islohia - - Ismayil - - Ismayil Agha's Kala Ismid - - Ismid, sandjak - Isnik—Nicomedia Istanos - - Itchm6 - - Izoli Hadji 1 1 1 12 2 2 _ 1 — — 4 _ 1 2 __ _ 1 21 3 1 _ 6 2 _ 1 1 _ _ 3 2 _ 2 _ 1 - _ 1 — 3 1 - 1 — 2 6 — 1 1 — 2 _ _ 2 _ 1 1 _ 6 _ 1 _ 1 — 2 — 1 1 Mouhadjirs (immigrants). of Mouhadjirs. Elsewhere. K Kachin Han - - - - _ _ 1 Kahdem - ----- _ _ 1 Kaisaria ----- _ 13 2 Kaisaria, Villages in the District of - 2 - Kamakh ----- — 2 3 Kamakh Boghaz _ _ _ - - 2 Kangal _____ - 2 - Kapou Kays _ _ - _ - 1 - (Karabagh District) - - - - - 1 Karadjalou—Garadjalu - - - 2 - Karagatch _ _ - _ — 1 — Karagoz - - - - - - 1 - (Karakeliss) - - - - - - 2 Karaman ----- _ _ 1 Kara-Pounar - - — _ _ 3 Karasu _ — — — _ _ 2 — Karer _____ — _ 1 Karmad - - - - - _ _ 1 (Kara) - - - - — - 1 (Kars, Town and District) - - - - 1 Karsakh ----- _ 1 _ Karspazar - - - — — 2 - Karsz - - - - 1 _ Kartzor — - — — - _ 1 Kasha - - - - - _ 1 _ Kassaba ----- _ 1 _ Kavash District - - — _ 2 _ (Kazakh) _____ - - 1 Kazi Mahara _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 Keban - - - - - 1 __ Keboussia- - - - - 1 _ (Kedabek) - - - 1 Keghi—Kighi _ — — _ — 4 - Keghvank - - - - _ 2 KeklikTep<§ - _ - 1 Kelidj ---__ — 2 - Kerasond—Kiresoun - - - 1 1 Keremet — — — — — _ 1 _ Keshan - - - _ _ _ 1 _ Kesirig - - - — - — 1 — Kessab - - - - - _ 4 __ Ketcheurd—Katchayourt - - — 1 - Ketch-Magara — — — - — 1 _ Keumer Han - - - - _ _ 2 Khanishan — — - - _ 1 _ Khantzart District - _ _ 1Name of Place. Replacement by Moslem No Mention Armenians Deported or taking Flight Mouhadjirs (immigrants). of Mouhadjirs. irom Elsewhere. Kheder-Bey - - - - _ 1 _ Kheiban - - — - - _ 1 — Khlat ----- _ 1 Khnyss ----- _ 5 _ Khoi --_-_ _ 1 4 Khoronk ----- _ 1 _ Khorsan _ - - _ _ _ 1 _ Khourakhon - - - - __ 1 _ Khozmo Pass - - - - _ _ 1 Kiakhta—Kyakta - — - - - 2 Kilidjlar ----- - - 1 Killis _____ _ 1 1 Kirk Goz _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 Kizil Agatch _ - _ _ - 1 - Komer _ _ - _ _ _ 1 _ Koms—Goms - - — - _ 3 _ Konia _ _ _ — _ _ 6 17 Konia, vilayet - - - - — 1 2 Kotchan ----- _ 1 _ Kotchesur—Kotch Hissar — - _ 1 _ Kotmo _____ _ _ 3 (Kourpalou) _ _ _ _ _ — 1 Kozolouk ----- _ 1 _ Kudchi _ - _ _ _ _ _ 1 Kurdistan ----- _ 2 _ Kurdmeidan - - - - _ 1 Kurk ----- _ 1 — Kurtapa - — — — _ — 1 - Kurt-Belene _ - - _ — 1 — L Lappashli ----- 1 Lebanon _ - - — _ 1 _ — Lsounk ~ — - — _ — 1 — M Ma'an ___._._ 1 Ma'ara ----- _ _ 2 Makof - _ - - _ _ 1 — Malatia _ _ - - _ _ 4 4 Malgara - _ _ _ _ 1 1 - Maltepe - - _ _ _ - 1 - Mama Hatoun—Derdjan - - 1 2 Mamouret- - - - - _ _ 1 Mamouret-ul-Aziz, vilayet - - — 5 _ Mandjaluk- - - - - - 2 - Mansouria—Monsoria- - - - 1 - Maragha ----- - 1 - Mardin _____ _ 6 1 (Markar) ----- - 1 Marmardjik _ - _ _ - 1 - Marmora, Coasts of - - - — 1 — Marsovan _ _ _ _ — 15 _ Marsovan District _ _ - — 1 — Mayadin _____ — - 1 Mediterranean, Coasts of - - _ 1 _ Meghd - - — . — - — 1 - Mekragom _ _ _ _ — 1 - Melashkerd—Melazkerd - - _ 2 — Mergavar ----- - 1 - Mersina _ _ _ _ — _ 5 _ Meskene - - - - - _ 1 Mesopotamia _ _ - _ — _ 11 Mess Nor Keui - - - - _¦ 1 _ Messoudia- - - - - _ 1 _ Mezre _____ _ 6 Miandoab - _ - - _ _ 1 _ Mikhalidj - _ — _ _ — _ 1 Mirkedjia - - — _ _ — _ 1 Moks, kaza - - - - _ 1 _ Morinig _ _ _ - - _ 1 _ Mosul - _ - - - _ 11 Mosul, Region of - - - — 1 (Mouandjik) - - - - _ 1 Moumbidj - - _ _ _ 2 Mourad Su—Eastern Euphrates - _ — 2 Moush _____ - 12 - N (Nahichevan) _ _ _ _ _ 2 (Nahichevan, Town and District) - — _ 1 Nazi _ _ - _ _ _ 1 _ Nazlu District - - - - _ 1 _ NTigde ----- _ 1 'Nijni-Akhti) - - - - — — 1 Niksar - - - _ - _ 2 _ Norag — — _¦__ 1 Nordoz - - - _ _ 2 (Novo-Bayazid) - - - - 1 (Novo-Bayazid, Town and District) _ _ 1 (Novo-Nikolaievka) _ - - - - - 1 0 Odjakli ----- 1 _ Olti ------ _ 1 Ordou - - - _ - - 2 zz 680 INDEX OF PLACES Massacre, Forcible Conversion, or Deportation, Arrival, 0 I Massacre or Armenian Inhabitants. Passage of Armenians Deported or taking Flight Name of Place. Replacement by Moslem No Mention Mouhadjirs of ElsGwhsrB (immigrants). Mouhadjirs. Ortakeui ------ 2 Osmania ----- - - 9 Oulash ----- — 1 _ Ourbadji Oglou Dere (near Bai- bourt) ----- — — 1 Ourfa -_-__ 14 4 Ourough - - - - - — 1 - Ovadjik - - - - - 1 — P Palu- - _ 1 Panderma- - - - — 2 _. (Parakar) ----- - - 1 Passin District - - - - — 3 1 Pazou -__-_ 2 - Pelou -_..-_ - 2 - Pera - - - - - 1 — Perkenik - - - - — 1 - Perkhous ----- - 1 — Perri -.____ _ 1 — Pertchendji - - - - 1 Plel ----- — 1 — (Plour) ----- - - 1 Polatlu - - - — 1 — (Port Said) - - - 3 Q Quodshanis - - — — - 5 - R Radjou ----- — _ 2 Rahva - - - - _ _ 1 _ Rakka ----- 5 Ras-ul-Ain - - - — _ — - 3 Rodosto - - - - — i 1 - Roumlou - - - - - — 2 — S Sabandja ----- 2 Sahajian District - - - 1 - Sairt ----- — 3 - Salekan ----- — 1 — Salmas - - - - ¦ - — 4 4 Salmas District- _ - - 3 — Salt Desert of Anatolia - - - - 1 Sarai _____ _ 2 _ Sassoun _____ — 3 Scutari _____ — 1 _ Selefka _____ _ 2 _, Severeg _____ - - 1 Shabin Kara-Hissar - - - — 6 _ Shadakh _____ 1 _ Shadakh Region—Shatakh Kaza - - 3 _ Shahbagh ----- - 1 — Shakh ----- 1 _ Shaklak _____ _ 1 _ Shar Kishla—Sari-Kishila 4- _ 3 4 (Sharori) _____ - _ 1 Sheer—Shar - _. 3 _ Sheitan Dere _ _ _ _ _ 2 Shekhlan ----- _ 1 _ Shivilgi _ _ — — _ _ 1 _ (Shousha District) - - — — _ 1 Shushantz - - - - 2 Silivri _____ _ 1 _ Sis —_-_ — _ 5 1 Sivas - - - - - _ 17 4 Sivas District—Sivas vilayet - — 10 Slivan _ - _ _ _ _ 1 Smyrna _____ - 1 _ Sordar _____ _ 1 Sortra - 1 ,_ Soudjboulak _ _ _ _ - 1 _« Soulouk — — — — - 1 __ Sourp Garabed Monastery - - _ 1 Soushehri - - - - — 2 _ Sughurt—Sairt (?) _ 2 _ (Suhoi Fontan) — - - - - _ 1 Sultania — — - - - _ 6 Siingurlii—Soungourlou - - — 2 (Surmalin) - - - — - 1 Surudj - _ _ _ _ _ 1 Suverek — — — — - 1 _. Syria _.--.__ - - ″ 4 T Tabriz ----- 3 ... Tal ------ 3 Talas - _. 5 1 Talas, Villages in the District of - — 1 Tamar — - - — - 1 mm, (Tarsa-Tchai) - — 1 Tarsus - - - - - _ 3 8 Tasholouk - - 1 ZZ 2 Armenians Deported or taking Flight Name of Placb. Replacement by Moslem No Mention Mouhadjirs (immigrants). of Mouhadjirs. Elsewhere. Tchai - - - - _ 1 (Tchaikent) - _ - 1 Tchalgara ----- - — 1 Tchamli-Bel - _ — 2 Tchamulan - - - - - — 1 Tcharbash - - _ _ _ 1 _ (Tchardahli) - _ - 1 Tchargousha - - — - - 1 _ Tchar-Sandjak - - - - _ 1 *¦ _ Tchar-Shamba ----- _ 2 _ Tchemesh-Getzak - _ 2 _ (Tchibouhli) - - - 1 Tchiftlik, near Tokat- _ _ 2 Tchingiler- - - - - _ 2 _ Tchomakli - - - - _ 1 _ Tchorlu ----- _ 1 _ Tchoroum—Chorun — - — _ 4 _ Tchoukour - - - - 1 _ Tchumbar- - - - - _ 1 _ Tchunkoush - - - - — 1 — Tchutlug—Khoutlig - - 1 1 Tedjir - — — 1 Teheran ----- _ 1 Tel-Armen - - - - — 1 _ Telouk-Khaina — - - - — _ 1 Ten ------ — 1 — Tergawar — - _ _ _ - 1 - Tiari - _ 5 _ (Tiflis) ----- — - 1 (Tiliis, Town and District) — _ 1 Tigris River _ — _ _ - — ¦ 2 Tireboli — — - - - 1 Tkhouma—Tkhoma - - - _ 5 _ Tokat - 6 __ Totz- _____ _ 1 — Toutlikeui - - — _ _ _ 1 Trebizond ----- _ 10 _ Trebizond, vilayet — - - _ 3 _ Turchal — — — - - _ 2 Tzeronk — —: — — - 1 - U Urmia—Urmi - - - - 12 1 Urmia District — — — — _ 3 — Ushnuk ----- - - 1 V (Vaharshapat, Town and District) _ 1 Van ------ 14 1 Van, vilayet - - _ - — 3 2 REFERRED TO IN THE DOCUMENTS. 683 Name of Place. Massacre, Forcible Conversion, or Deportation, of Armenian Inhabitants. Arrival, Massacre or Passage of Armenians Deported or taking Flight from Elsewhere. Replacement by Moslem Mouhadjirs (immigrants). No Mention of Mouhadjirs. Van-Dosp District—Timar - -Varak Monastery - - -(Veri Ailaulou) - - — -Vezir Koprii - - - -Viran Shehr - - - -Vostan - - - - -Y Yalova - — - — -Yarpouz -----Yeghek -----Yenidje — — - - — Yeni Han (near Tokat) - — Yeni-Shehr - - - -Yerebakan - - -Yermag — - - — -Yoghanolouk - — - _ Yozgad -----Yulduz Han (near Sivas) - -Z Zara _____ Zeitoun _____ Ziaret _____ Zila -Zindjirdere - _ _ _ 4 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 19 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 684 150. MESSAGE, DATED 22nd JULY, 1916, FROM MR. N., OF CONSTANTINOPLE ; COMMUNICATED BY THE AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR ARMENIAN AND SYRIAN RELIEF. N. desires his correspondents beyond the borders of Turkey to be confidentially informed :— " That he has word from German Relief Agents at Aleppo, sent through German Embassy, who report visits of their helpers to wide district, including Der-el-Zor and other places on Euphrates and in desert. They have seen thousands of deported Armenians under tents in the open, in convoys on the march, descending River in boats and in all phases of their miserable life. Only in few places does Government issue any rations, and those quite insufficient. People therefore themselves forced to satisfy their hunger with food begged in that scanty land or found in the parched fields. Agents found them eating grass, herbs, and locusts, and in desperate cases dead animals and human bodies are reported to have been eaten. Naturally, death-rate from starvation and sickness very high, and increased by brutal treatment of the authorities, whose bearing toward exiles as they are being driven back and forth over desert is not unlike that of slave-drivers. With few exceptions no shelter of any kind is provided, and the people coming from cold climate are left under scorching desert sun without food or water. Tem- porary amelioration can only be obtained by the few able to pay officials. " Misery and hopelessness of the situation is such that many are reported to resort to suicide. Illustrating methods employed, agents report gathering group of one hundred children whom they placed in care of educated young widow from Hadjin. Two weeks later these children were deported, and from two survivors found further down convoy route it was learned that the rest had perished. House mother, crazed by treatment of her charges, was among deported moving on. Boat-loads sent from Zor down the River arrived at Ana, one hundred and thirty miles away, with three-fifths of passengers missing. There appears, in short, to be steady policy to exterminate these people, but to deny charge of massacre. Their destruction from so-called natural causes seems decided upon."