Detail View: Bent-Hyde Papers: Fourteen Original Maps of George Bent and George Hyde by Jean Afton

File Name: 
arbh23.pdf
Collection Name: 
Bent-Hyde Papers, 1905-1918
Collection Description: 
The collection consists of original maps of Indian and military positions of such areas as Sand Creek, the Arkansas River, etc., and correspondence between George Bent and George Hyde, covering the years 1905-1918.
Work Title: 
Fourteen Original Maps of George Bent and George Hyde by Jean Afton
Work Agent Name: 
Bent, George, 1843-1918
Work Agent Role: 
author
Work Agent Name: 
Hyde, George E., 1882-1968
Work Agent Role: 
author
Work Agent Name: 
Afton, Jean, ?d 1919-
Work Agent Role: 
author
Work Date: 
1905-1918
Work Date Type: 
creation
Inscription Text: 
Jean Afton 2324 S. Columbine St, Denver, Colorado 80210 FOURTEEN ORIGINAL MAPS OP GEORGE BENT-GEORGE HYDE by Jean Afton What happened to the map George Bent drew of the Indian encampment and Chivington's attack trail at Sand Creek? This map described by George Hyde as drawn by Bent with the help of old Cheyennes who had been there, was declared lost by Savoie Lottinville who searched for it when editing the Hyde manuscript of the "Life of George Bent". A letter dated October, 1928, in the Western History Collections of The University of Colorado Libraries, states in part: "I have just received the following lot: Map of Platte Bridge fight drawn on coarse paper in pencil by George Bent, half-breed son of Col. William Bent, showing positions of soldiers and Indians and locations of events in the fight. Map of Sand Creek battle-field on coarse paper in pencil by Bent showing positions of Indians and Chivington's trail before the massacre. Map of Sand Creek battle-field prepared by George Hyde with notations of places and names in ink on five sheets of letter-sized paper pasted together....u This letter addressed to Professor James F. Willard, head of the History Department at the University, was from a John VanMale, dealer in books on Colorado. VanMale concluded: "With the maps are typewritten pages of explanation and comment by Hyde. You may have the lot for §30.00. If you don't take them my next list will be quite swell, but if you do, I'll have the $30.00, so either way I'll feel pleased." On November 1, 1928, The University of Colorado receipted for $40.00 a list of six maps and other material. Four maps were drawn by Bent and two by Hyde with Bent notations. However, the collection now contains 14 maps, and the Western History Collections department of Norlin Library has no record of the accession of the additional eight maps. George Hyde may have included his work maps in the packet, considering them of little value. It may also account for the discrepancy between the selling and buying prices. Another letter from VanMale dated December 4, 1928, ended: "The same chap who sold me the Bent material is sending me a collection of letters from Bent, which I shall bring to Boulder for you to see.... This chap doesn't want the letters printed for a few years though, as he still hopes to write or publish his life of Bent." (University of Colorado Libraries, Western Historical Collection; Bent Maps). Even though Hyde was selling his letters and maps, he continued his search for a publisher for his manuscript on George Bent. In 1930, circumstances forced him to sell this manuscript, and The Denver Public Library bought it for a re-ported $300.00. Thirty eight years later it was edited and published by Savoie Lottinville as The Life of George Bent. The correspondence between Bent and Hyde began in 1904 and continued until Bent's death in 1918. Bent wrote several hundred letters during this time. The known collections of these letters belong to the Western History Department of the Denver Public Library; the Colorado State Historical Society Library; a small number to the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles. And 260, which Hyde sold to an Omaha dealer in 1926, now belong to the Coe Collection of Western Americana at Yale University. The University of Colorado has the maps and one Bent letter. Although researchers have used the maps from time to time, the records of the curator indicate that they have not been published. The major portion of this paper is devoted to those maps drawn or marked by Bent. However, I'll cover all of Hyde's maps and include his comments, where they are relevant, so those interested will know what the collection holds. Excerpts from Bent's letters describe in his own words the actions, events and localities depicted on the maps. I have made no changes in the spelling, punctuation or grammar of these letters. At times the meaning is somewhat obscure, but the letters indicate Bent's ability to describe the Indian position. Unless stated otherwise, all the letters quoted in this paper are from the Yale university collection and are identified by dates only. MAP# 1 FROM FT. ZARRAH ON THE GREAT BEND OF THE ARKANSAS RIVER TO 50 MILES EAST OF BENT'S FORT. Hyde's work maps Hyde; "This old work map is not correct in some details.... Bent marked on this map in faint blue pencilmarks. 1. 'lodge pole trail' along the south bank of the Arkansas from Ft. Atkinson west into Colo. 2. on Bluff Cr. 'camp here I840', this is big camp of Cheyennes and Arapahos at time of their battle with Kiowas and Comanches, but the date is wrong-- should be 1838. 3. On Cimarron 'my Grandfather died'. This was his mother's father; the keeper of the Arrows and a very promenint man." Actually the location is also wrong according to Bent's letter (Jan. 23, 1905). He wrote; "In 1857 Kiowas, Comanches and Arapahos killed 42 Cheyennes on head of Washita River. These Cheyennes were out on war path----That is why Cheyennes and Arapahos moved against them (in 1838) when they had big fight on Wolf Creek. My Grandfather was killed there... According to Grinnell (American Anthropologist, 1906) Wolf Creek was the Indian name for the North Canadian--off this map. This map also shows a broken line for the trail and two camps of Dull Knife and his band of Northern Cheyennes going north in 1878, in their tragic flight from the Oklahoma Reservation. The authenticity of the Colorado University maps is proved by the blue pencil marks indicating the lodge-pole trail, and the red dash trail of Dull Knife drawn by Bent. MAP# 2 THE DRAINAGE OP THE ARKANSAS FROM WEST OF PUEBLO TO THA KANSAS LINE. HYDE: "work map 1916--not accurate in all points." Hyde referred to Rufus Sage, Scenes in the Rocky Mountains; and Lt. George M. Wheeler, leader of an expedition of the Corp of Army Engineers on "Topographic Surveys West of the 100th Meridian" during the years 1873-1684. Locations of posts, stockades and forts from Bent's letters: April 14, 1908; "The first picket Fort they build was in 1827 on Arkansas River, at mouth of Huerfano-60-65 miles west of Fort William or Bent's Fort." "Bent's Old Fort built of adobe. Bent Bros started this fort in 1827 and finished in 1832." "Bent's New Fort built in 1853 entirely of stone." "Bent Bros built another post or fort at mouth of Fountain Creek, this called El Pueblo, but this fort was unimportant so they did not use it long." April 10, 1905; "01d Fort--12 miles above Purgatory River New Port--32 miles below Old Fort Gov't Stockade--1/2 mile above New Fort, called Ft Wise Gov't rented New Fort during; war, called Ft Wise, then changed to Ft. Lyon. Gov't build New Fort Lyon 16 miles above post on Arkansas, 4 miles below Purgatory." Hyde marked the Indian trails from Bent's New Fort north to the Smoky Kill and south to the Cimarron. MAP # 3 GE0RGE BENT'S MAP OF THE ARKANSAS AND ITS TRIBUTARIES. Bent noted the Indian names for several creeks. Letter, May 3, 1917 (University of Colorado Collection) "Huerfano Creek call by Indians Old Lodge Skin Creek. there is Peak near this Creek looks like Old Lodge. and this is way it is called. "Apishapa Call by Indians Quarreling Creek long time ago there was big Village of Cheyennes in Camp. Chiefs in Selecting Young Chiefs in their places quarreled all Night. and this is way it is called Quarreling Creek." Bent shows place where the Apaches buried their dead during the cholera outbreak in 1849. Called the "Cramps" by the Indians, cholera may have been brought onto the Plains by the '49ers headed for California. MAP # 4 HYDE'S MAP OF THE ARKANSAS AND ITS TRIBUTARIES. Drawn by George Hyde, this map was sent to Bent for labelling. He marked only 'Big Timbers' below Bent's stockade on the Purgatorie, Bitter and Black Lakes and the area where the Apaches buried their dead. MAP #5 KIOWA FIGHT IN 1831 or 1832. Letter, February 15, 1912; "Just 72 years ago east of Denver Colo on what Cheyennes call Scout Creek is where the Cheyennes had fight with the Kiowas, it was this way. Cheyennes camped on Artichoke Creek, early next morning as it was custom those days, some men went ahead to locate Buffalo, several men that were ahead seen something away off that look like herd of buffalo or wild horses, but as ″ the sun rose higher most of these animals were white, and pretty soon they seen people on horses. At this time Cheyenne Village was on move. Cheyennes began to signal on their horses. One rode from his party away from and back to them several times. This was signal enemy ahead. Every man commenced running for their war horses, shields, lances, war bonnets. Meantime Kiowas seen them and make run for Scout Creek. Cheyennes made charge towards them. Several Kiowas stayed behind to give cattle so old men and women could dig into sand for breastworks--where Kiowa women and children stayed while the fight went on. One of these Kiowas was awful brave. Cheyennes talk about him to this day. he rode fine white horse, he would charge right in among the Cheyennes. He lanced Man Above, Cheyenne brave off his horse in one of his charges. He held the Cheyennes in check until they shot him off his horse with arrow's in one of his mad charges. When they shot him off his horse balance of the Kiowas ran for their women and children. Old Kiowas at breastworks were ready to fight on foot. Good deal of timber at this place, Kiowas had good many of their best horses tied to trees. Cheyennes captured lots of their horses with their packs onthem--- but could not do much as the Kiowas were in too good place to fight from. Cheyennes left them. Kiowas were on way north to visit the Crows, their old friends to trade for elk-teeth dresses, ermine skins and eagle feathers." Obviously there is some question as to the exact location of this battle. Grinnell states that the Scout creek name was changed to Kiowa creek after this fight, but it does not agree with Hyde's map or Bent's label. Bent also marked Pawnee Buttes north of Fort Morgan. "This Butte is where Cheyennes tried to starve the Pawnee war party." MAP #6 LOCATION OF INDIAN TRAILS. Hyde; "I sent this sketch map to Bent to get him to locate on it certain places mentioned in his narrative." Bent marked the trail from Bent's Fort to the village at Sand Creek, and then on to the head of Smoky Hill. The map is one mentioned by Van Male in his first letter to Dr. Willard. Hyde also dated his comments regarding this map. The date of October, 1928, indicates Hydes preparations of the packet prior to the sale. MAP #7 EVENTS DURING THE SUMMER, SPRING AND FALL OF 1864. After a quiet winter, some raiding began along the major roads in April. In one raid on the Platte, a large herd of stock belonging to the Overland Stage Co. was run off from a station east of Julesburg. Lt. George S. Eayre, with 100 men and two howitzers was sent to recover it. On May 16, 1864, he ran onto the village of Black Kettle and Lean Bear who were unaware of the trouble between the whites and the Indians. This is Wolf-Chief's statement many years later (March 28, 1906). "About 250 lodges of Cheyennes were camped on Ash Creek 60 miles N. of Pawnee Cr. (Note that Bent has the camps on the Smoky Hill) In the morning Cheyenne hunters came in from chasing buffalo Village Cryer went through the camp asking the chiefs to git their horses and go out and meet the soldiers The Cryer said the hunters told him there were good many soldiers and they had cannons with them....Black Kettle and Lean Bear were head chiefs of this village. Lean Eear was leading lot of us to go and meet the soldiers. Just as we rode on hill we seen 4 companies of cavalry and cannon also. Soon as they seen us they formed in line. We were not looking for battle as we had been camped near Ft. Larned all winter and trading with traders....Lean Bear told us all to stay back, that he would ride up and show the officer his Washington papers and show him that they were at peace with the whites. Lean Bear had on his breast Lincoln medal that was given to him in Washington in 1863. When he rode to within 20 or 30 feet, the officer who was in front of the soldiers hallowed out. When the soldiers fired at Lean Bear and Star were both shot off their horses in front of the soldiers. The soldiers rode up and shot them again while lying on the ground. They killed 3 of us and we killed 4 or 5 soldiers. Black Kettle rode up and stopped this fight. He said we were at peace with the whites." Bent wrote May 6, 1905; "This caused the outbreak of all the Indians that year. Captain Airs [sic] was cause of the war in 1864." Lean Bear's band sent the war pipe north to enlist the aid of all the bands in a war on the whites. Some of the peaceful bands went south of the Arkansas River. There was a large village camped on the Solomon or Turkey Cr. during the summer. After Lean Bear's death, plundering along all trails across the middle Plains was massive. Bent wrote (Mar. 15. 1905); "I seen all kinds of stuff they brought. Fine silks, clocks, bonnets, in fact everything in line of fine dry-goods. They took from trains they plundered. Old Indians wore ladies fine bonnets for hats. I seen fine clocks worn by old men Silks were made into squaw dresses and shirts for young men. I had 1/2 doz. made of same silk. Evans request for a regiment of volunteers was granted in August and recruited by Col. John M. Chivington, Commander of the District of Colorado. They were ready for duty by the first of Sept. Late in August, wrote Bent (Mar. 15, 1905),"Cheyennes and Spotted Tails band of Sioux were camped on the Solomon River and had big council. I was at this council and they got me to write letter that they wanted to talk peace and return two white women they had as prisoners. The letter was taken to the agent at Fort Lyon by two Cheyennes One Eye and Minimick both head men. Maj. Wynkoop came out on Hackberry Creek south of Ft Wallace. I was with the Indians, One Eye and Minimick came with Wynkoop to get their women. The Dog Soldiers wanted to fight Wynkoop. Black Kettle and other chiefs prevented the fight." Wynkoop then escorted Black Kettle, White Antelope, Dull Knife and four other chiefs to Camp Weld near Denver to meet with Governor Evans and Col. Chivington. Unaware that this meeting was going on, General James J. Blunt took to the field to look for Indians. MAP #8 GEORGE BENT'S MAP OF THE BLUNT ENCOUNTER. In September, 1864, General James G. Blunt's advanced guard, under Col. Scott J. Anthony, encountered a large Cheyenne village moving towards Ft. Larned. At the Advice of his Delaware scouts, Anthony retreated to a hill-top for defense. Gen Blunt, unaware or Anthony's plight, marched up Pawnee Creek looking for Cheyenne bands. Bent Sept. 1905; "About 40 or 50 Cheyennes that went ahead that morning met Gen. Blunt and shook hands with him. He was riding ahead of his command. these Cheyennes and Blunt did not know that fighting was going on between them and the big village with Maj. Anthony when both parties seen Indians all around Anthony Cheyennes ran to the Creek, Blunt stood there with his troops and did not know what to do for while. He even never fired on those that were running for the Creek. The Indians got behind the Creek bank. Then Blunt with his troops went towards where Anthony was corralled." The Indians retreated northwest then went to Black Kettle's Village on the Smoky Hill. June 12, 1906; How Red Sleeves Creek got its name. "My fathers train was camped on this stream in 1848 when 500 Comanches attacked it John Smith and Murphy both claimed that they shot this Comanche Chief off his horse near the wagons. they scalped him--his name was Red Arms or Red Sleeves. Cheyennes knew him, they say he had buckskin coat, the sleeves painted Red. All Indians named the Stream after him" MAP #9 THE SAND CREEK CAMP AND CHIVINGTON'S ATTACK. This map was drawn by Bent with the help of old Indians. Note the positions of the various bands; the horse herd; Chivington's trail west and east of the camp; the pits dug by the women and old men against the high west bank of the creek; and the lines of soldiers surrounding them. There are two figures; Hyde identified one as White Antelope who refused to fight but stood with his arms folded singing his death song; "Nothing endures but the earth and the mountains". The unidentified figure may be where Black Kettle's wife fell while fleeing up the creek-bed. (The following is taken from 'George Bent's Sand Creek'--Afton,nc)" Black Kettle and some of the chiefs began to move towards Ft. Lyon after their meeting in Denver. Gov. Evans told them that the situation was now out of his hands and they would have to deal with the military, Chivington was ambiguous, stating that he was not the big war chief, but if the Indians went to the military posts and gave up their arms, they would probably be safe. Major Anthony later indicated that they were not to be in the immediate vicinity of Port Lyon. "Black Kettles band moved towards Arkansas River and got as far as Sand Creek and were camped there for several weeks." (Morris, 1905) On November 29, 1864, "Chivington attacked the Village early in Morning I had not got out of bed when I heard soldiers were coming....One company went around East side of the Camp and one Company west side. I looked towards Black Kettle's Lodge and he had Flag on Lodge pole in front of his Lodge. Just than [sic] the soldiers opened fire from all sides of the village. Indians fled up the creek-bed. "....Old Men and Women dug holes about two miles above the Camp when we got there the soldiers were all around them shooting. two Companies were behind us, of course shooting at us all the way. we pass good many Men Women and Children Killed. I was wounded, just before going into the holes that were dug. these were dug against the bank, this what saved good many Men Women and Children" (Mar. 15, 1905). Black Kettle and his wife sought safety in the sand pits. As they ran up stream, Medicine Woman Later was felled by a shot. Believing her dead, Black Kettle joined those hiding under the river bank. When darkness fell, Black Kettle found his wife barely alive, having survived nine bullet wounds in her body. He quietly carried her to safety. Bent continued (Dec. 21, 1905), "At Sand Creek Chivingtons men Stoped [sic] firing at us about 5 o'clock.... soon as they left us we all what was left of us, started up Sand Creek. about half of us in the party were wounded....that night we all stoped in Ravine about 10 Miles above the battle ground.... it was very dark and cold, and those that were not wounded kept up the grass fires as there was no wood to be got to keep from freezing as lots of had no blankets lots of them had their friends to cover them up with grass to keep from freezing that night. some Indians had their ponies picketed in the Village, these Indians raced to the Village on Smokey 50 miles away and told what had taken place....All of us before daylight we all started for the Smoky Hill." MAP #10 ROUTE AFTER SAND CREEK BATTLE. Hyde; "This is another map I sent to Bent. He has marked on it the camp after Sand Cr and trail from that camp n-e to the North Smoky Hill, then n-w to Cherry Cr. I made a note on the map asking him if the Cherry Cr marked was the one where the camp was when they went to burn Julesburg; he marked the camp on that stream and wrote a note to tell me this was the creek where they camped. He then continues the trail north from Cherry Cr to the Platte. He should have marked another camp on White Butte between Cherry Cr and the Platte, but was in much doubt as to what stream was White Butte Cr. I think it was Sandy Creek; Grinnell thinks it was Whiteman's Fork. I have been told by ranchers who live in that district today that there is a big white buttes there that can be seen 24 ms away, but these ranchers are dumber than Indians and cannot locate the butte on a map. Bent was in this locality on one occasion and always showed considerable doubt as to the location of Cherry Cr and White Butte Cr." MAP #11 Hyde's map of General Mitchell's Route. Hyde plotted Gen. Robert B. Mitchell's movements in an attempt to discover why he never encountered Indians who were raiding along the Platte River. MAP #12 FIGHT NEAR MUD SPRINGS, FEBRUARY 1865. Mud Springs provided the only water for wagon trains and stock for some distance along the Overland Trail. A telegraph station was located at the ranch there. Note Indian camp. Bent, April. 24, 1905; After Julesburg, "Cheyennes, Sioux and some Arapahos were moving for northern country at this time I was with them my brother Charley also. They made raids up and down S Platte. They had battle with 4 Companies on N Platte, About 20 Soldiers made a charge on party of Indians that were shooting at them from the bank of river 300 yds from where the soldiers had corralled their wagons Soldiers could not see these Indians to shoot at them as they were behind bank. The Indians were waiting for the soldiers to move on the road as they had pits throwed up around the corral. Indians behind the bank killed good many horses and mules. Indians behind sand hills make charge on these soldiers and killed 6 soldiers out of 20 one Soldier got away he ran through the Indians and was on roan horse. I seen him as he went through. He ran up the road some Indians got after him but he was on very fast horse that could be seen he threw down saddle bag The Indians brought letters to me that was in this bag. One was for commanding officer at Ft. Laramie to send troops to meet them as there were 1000 of Indians camped on N Platte" MAP #13 POSITIONS AND MOVEMENTS OF THE SOLDIER SOCIETIES, AT PLATTE BRIDGE. The Southern bands camped and hunted with the Northern Cheyennes, Red Cloud's Sioux and Northern Arapahos all winter. The ill-fated Connors and Cole Expeditions were defeated, and in the spring the "Cheyennes Arapahoes Siouxs had big council on Tongue River to all agree which would be best place to attack. This was May 1865 after they had selected Platte Bridge...all 3 tribes had Shield Dance...Platte Bridge was to be attacked in middle of summer. By last of May lot of war parties started in different directions toward Platte River to make short raids and get back in time to start for Platte Bridge....After this big war Party was on move, one Society went ahead as advanced guard to keep anybody going ahead. This society picked or selected camping place for the night. there was also one Society at the rear this kept everybody in line while moving. Just before gotten to Platte Bridge the advance guards stoped behind big hill...we all camped behind the hill for the night as there was good camping place.... Everybody kept still. that night, no singing was allowed, Next morning we all moved for the bridge I was with the party that went above the bridge. It was not long before Liet. Casper (Collins) came across the bridge following the road I think he had about 24 men with him" (Oct 12, 1906), Narrative continued for next map. MAP #14 GEORGE BENT'S MAP 0F BATTLE DRAWN FROM THE POSITION OF THE INDIANS LOOKING SOUTH TO THE BRIDGE. "Indians came at him from all directions the dust and smoke was so thick I could not see very well. when the dust and smoke cleared away I seen soldiers laying all around. The river was very high. The Indians intended to rush across the river but could not do so on account the river being up. lot of soldiers were on the bridge firing the cannon about 10 Indians crossed the river below the bridge- of course had to swim their horses. They had fight with soldiers on other side. High Wolf or High-backed- Wolf, got killed over there Up the river, we seen train coming so every one made a charge for it When I got there they had corralled the wagons and turned all their animals loose. this was about 2 o'clock Some of the Soldiers layed under the wagons and some in the wagons, all the wagons had covers on, The Soldiers cut holes in the wagon sheets to shoot through. In this pile I counted 22 men killed-8 Indians were killed in this fight....Roman Nose's brother was killed" (Oct. 12, 1905). COMMENTS: Several enigmas surround the disposition of these maps. Bent's early letters indicate that he and Hyde were collaborating on a history of the Cheyennes. On June 12, 1906, Bent wrote; "I hope you will find publisher to buy our book soon." Meanwhile, George Bird Grinnell was also writing to and interviewing Bent. An Oct. 13, 1908 letter states; "I am in hopes that Grinnell will do something with the book soon. I am glad to hear that he got you to put it in shape for him. Push it through and anything you wish to know write me." This strongly suggests that Hyde was editing some of Grinnell's work. On Feb. 22, 1912, Bent wrote; "I don't think Grinnell is doing much writing....He used to ask me good many things to write about...he doesn't do that anymore. "Yet The Fighting Cheyennes was published in 1915 and Grinnell acknowledged Hyde's background research in his introduction. Why then were the maps not included in this book? Grinnell had a map of Sand Creek similar to Bent's which indicates that he had seen the original. The sale of the maps and letters in the late 1920s is indicative of Hyde's financial status, but why did he fail to keep copies of these maps for the MS he hoped to publish? The Life of George Bent, edited by Lottinville, contains four Bent-Hyde maps and one drawn by Bent showing Cheyenne movements in 1864 and 1865. No credits are given for maps in Grinnell's book, but none appear to be Bent's. I find it difficult to rationalize or answer these questions from Hyde's standpoint. That there were no records remaining of his transactions with VanMale and other dealers forty years after the fact is understandable. CONCLUSIONS: Aside from the obvious intrinsic value of these maps, they should be of interest to scholars in several disciplines. Historians of the American West and the Indian Wars can gain new insights and verify old information. Militaty historians should find them useful in corraborating and augmenting official military reports. If J.W. Vaughn had seen Bent's maps of the Platte Bridge fight, perhaps his search for the place of Lt. Collins' death and the battle of the corralled wagon train would have been easier. The many authors of the Sand Creek affair could have had the original Bent map to work from rather than the Grinnell (1915: 171) map which was not entirely accurate. Bent's map of General Blount's route in his campaign against the Cheyennes has probably never been published. Regardless of its accuracy, it should add to the knowledge of that encounter especially when accompanied by Bent's reports. The maps augment George B. Grinnell's paper (1906:15-22) on Cheyenne names for rivers and streams by locating many geographic places of Indian significance. Bent's letters explain the origin of their Cheyenne names. Used in conjunction with his letters, Bent's maps enhance the ethnographic knowledge of band transhumance, demography and intertribal alliances of the Central Plains Indians. And they provide a better understanding of the pressures of en-forced, rapid change these tribal units were experiencing during the mid 19th Century″ Perhaps the greatest current value is in proto-historic and historic archaeology. Bent locates many summer and winter camp sites, battle grounds, trails and important Indian land-marks. In his letters and on some of his maps, he describes and locates stockades, forts and trading posts built by the Bent brothers. These sites should all be recorded and tested before it is too late. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Collections: Maps; Willard-VanMale correspondence Bent Collection, Western Historical Collections, University of Colorado Libraries. Bent Letters; Coe Collection of Western Americana, Bienecke Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Twelve Letters of George Bent to George Hyde 1905-1912 Colorado State Historical Society Library, Denver. Manuscripts; Afton, J. "George Bent's Sand Creek". Hyde, George E. "Life of George Bent"; Western History Department, Denver Public Library, Denver. Hyde, George E. 1968 Life of George Bent- Written from his letters. Savoie Lottinville ,editor. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Grinnell, George Bird 1906 "Cheyenne Stream Names" American Anthropologist, Vol. 8, ppl5-22. 1915 The Fighting Cheyennes University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Sage, Rufus B. 1956 His Letters and Papers 1856-1847, Scenes in the Rocky Mountains. The Arthur H. Clark Company, Glendale, Calif. Vaughn, J.W. 1963 The Battle of Platte Bridge University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Wheeler, Capt. George M. 1889 Report upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the One
Subject Term: 
Cheyenne Indians--History--Sources
Subject Term: 
Indians of North America--Colorado--Maps
Subject Term: 
Cheyenne Indians--Wars, 1864
Subject Term: 
Colorado--History--To 1876--Maps
Work Description: 
Typewritten [25] p. draft of paper entitled "Fourteen Original Maps of George Bent--George Hyde" by Jean Afton, Denver, CO
Work Type: 
articles
Location Name: 
University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Archives Dept.
Location Type: 
repository
Location Refid: 
Box 1 Folder 23
Location Refid Type: 
shelfList
Image Source: 
Rocky Mountain Online Archive Finding Aid of the Bent-Hyde Papers, 1905-1918
Image Source Refid: 
Image Measurement: 
34995712
Image Measurement Type: 
fileSize
Image Measurement Unit: 
bytes
Image Work Type: 
digital image